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The Florida Statutes

The 2023 Florida Statutes (including Special Session C)

Chapter 744
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F.S. 744.331
744.331 Procedures to determine incapacity.
(1) NOTICE OF PETITION TO DETERMINE INCAPACITY.Notice of the filing of a petition to determine incapacity and a petition for the appointment of a guardian if any and copies of the petitions must be served on and read to the alleged incapacitated person. The notice and copies of the petitions must also be given to the attorney for the alleged incapacitated person, and served upon all next of kin identified in the petition. The notice must state the time and place of the hearing to inquire into the capacity of the alleged incapacitated person and that an attorney has been appointed to represent the person and that, if she or he is determined to be incapable of exercising certain rights, a guardian will be appointed to exercise those rights on her or his behalf.
(a) When a court appoints an attorney for an alleged incapacitated person, the court must appoint the office of criminal conflict and civil regional counsel or a private attorney as prescribed in s. 27.511(6). A private attorney must be one who is included in the attorney registry compiled pursuant to s. 27.40. Appointments of private attorneys must be made on a rotating basis, taking into consideration conflicts arising under this chapter.
(b) The court shall appoint an attorney for each person alleged to be incapacitated in all cases involving a petition for adjudication of incapacity. The alleged incapacitated person may substitute her or his own attorney for the attorney appointed by the court.
(c) Any attorney representing an alleged incapacitated person may not serve as guardian of the alleged incapacitated person or as counsel for the guardian of the alleged incapacitated person or the petitioner.
(d) An attorney seeking to be appointed by a court for incapacity and guardianship proceedings must have completed a minimum of 8 hours of education in guardianship. A court may waive the initial training requirement for an attorney who has served as a court-appointed attorney in incapacity proceedings or as an attorney of record for guardians for not less than 3 years. This training requirement does not apply to a court-appointed attorney employed by an office of criminal conflict and civil regional counsel.
(a) Within 5 days after a petition for determination of incapacity has been filed, the court shall appoint an examining committee consisting of three members. One member must be a psychiatrist or other physician. The remaining members must be either a psychologist, a gerontologist, a psychiatrist, a physician, an advanced practice registered nurse, a registered nurse, a licensed social worker, a person with an advanced degree in gerontology from an accredited institution of higher education, or any other person who by knowledge, skill, experience, training, or education may, in the court’s discretion, advise the court in the form of an expert opinion. One of three members of the committee must have knowledge of the type of incapacity alleged in the petition. Unless good cause is shown, the attending or family physician may not be appointed to the committee. If the attending or family physician is available for consultation, the committee must consult with the physician. Members of the examining committee may not be related to or associated with one another, with the petitioner, with counsel for the petitioner or the proposed guardian, or with the person alleged to be totally or partially incapacitated. A member may not be employed by any private or governmental agency that has custody of, or furnishes, services or subsidies, directly or indirectly, to the person or the family of the person alleged to be incapacitated or for whom a guardianship is sought. A petitioner may not serve as a member of the examining committee. Members of the examining committee must be able to communicate, either directly or through an interpreter, in the language that the alleged incapacitated person speaks or to communicate in a medium understandable to the alleged incapacitated person if she or he is able to communicate. The clerk of the court shall send notice of the appointment to each person appointed no later than 3 days after the court’s appointment.
(b) A person who has been appointed to serve as a member of an examining committee to examine an alleged incapacitated person may not thereafter be appointed as a guardian for the person who was the subject of the examination.
(c) Each person appointed to an examining committee must file an affidavit with the court stating that he or she has completed the required courses or will do so no later than 4 months after his or her initial appointment. Each year, the chief judge of the circuit must prepare a list of persons qualified to be members of an examining committee.
(d) A member of an examining committee must complete a minimum of 4 hours of initial training. The person must complete 2 hours of continuing education during each 2-year period after the initial training. The initial training and continuing education program must be developed under the supervision of the Office of Public and Professional Guardians, in consultation with the Florida Conference of Circuit Court Judges; the Elder Law and the Real Property, Probate and Trust Law sections of The Florida Bar; and the Florida State Guardianship Association. The court may waive the initial training requirement for a person who has served for not less than 5 years on examining committees. If a person wishes to obtain his or her continuing education on the Internet or by watching a video course, the person must first obtain the approval of the chief judge before taking an Internet or video course.
(e) Each member of the examining committee shall examine the person. Each examining committee member must determine the alleged incapacitated person’s ability to exercise those rights specified in s. 744.3215. In addition to the examination, each examining committee member must have access to, and may consider, previous examinations of the person, including, but not limited to, habilitation plans, school records, and psychological and psychosocial reports voluntarily offered for use by the alleged incapacitated person. Each member of the examining committee must file his or her report with the clerk of the court within 15 days after appointment.
(f) The examination of the alleged incapacitated person must include a comprehensive examination, a report of which shall be filed by each examining committee member as part of his or her written report. The comprehensive examination report should be an essential element, but not necessarily the only element, used in making a capacity and guardianship decision. The comprehensive examination must include, if indicated:
1. A physical examination;
2. A mental health examination; and
3. A functional assessment.

If any of these three aspects of the examination is not indicated or cannot be accomplished for any reason, the written report must explain the reasons for its omission.

(g) Each committee member’s written report must include:
1. To the extent possible, a diagnosis, prognosis, and recommended course of treatment.
2. An evaluation of the alleged incapacitated person’s ability to retain her or his rights, including, without limitation, the rights to marry; vote; contract; manage or dispose of property; have a driver license; determine her or his residence; consent to medical treatment; and make decisions affecting her or his social environment.
3. The results of the comprehensive examination and the committee member’s assessment of information provided by the attending or family physician, if any.
4. A description of any matters with respect to which the person lacks the capacity to exercise rights, the extent of that incapacity, and the factual basis for the determination that the person lacks that capacity.
5. The names of all persons present during the time the committee member conducted his or her examination. If a person other than the person who is the subject of the examination supplies answers posed to the alleged incapacitated person, the report must include the response and the name of the person supplying the answer.
6. The signature of the committee member and the date and time the member conducted his or her examination.
(h) Within 3 days after receipt of each examining committee member’s report, the clerk shall serve the report on the petitioner and the attorney for the alleged incapacitated person by electronic mail delivery or United States mail, and, upon service, shall file a certificate of service in the incapacity proceeding. The petitioner and the attorney for the alleged incapacitated person must be served with all reports at least 10 days before the hearing on the petition, unless the reports are not complete, in which case the petitioner and attorney for the alleged incapacitated person may waive the 10 day requirement and consent to the consideration of the report by the court at the adjudicatory hearing. If such service is not timely effectuated, the petitioner or the alleged incapacitated person may move for a continuance of the hearing.
(i) The petitioner and the alleged incapacitated person may object to the introduction into evidence of all or any portion of the examining committee members’ reports by filing and serving a written objection on the other party no later than 5 days before the adjudicatory hearing. The objection must state the basis upon which the challenge to admissibility is made. If an objection is timely filed and served, the court shall apply the rules of evidence in determining the reports’ admissibility. For good cause shown, the court may extend the time to file and serve the written objection.
(4) DISMISSAL OF PETITION.If a majority of the examining committee members conclude that the alleged incapacitated person is not incapacitated in any respect, the court shall dismiss the petition.
(a) Upon appointment of the examining committee, the court shall set the date upon which the petition will be heard. The adjudicatory hearing must be conducted at least 10 days, which time period may be waived, but no more than 30 days, after the filing of the last filed report of the examining committee members, unless good cause is shown. The adjudicatory hearing must be conducted at the time and place specified in the notice of hearing and in a manner consistent with due process.
(b) The alleged incapacitated person must be present at the adjudicatory hearing, unless waived by the alleged incapacitated person or the person’s attorney or unless good cause can be shown for her or his absence. Determination of good cause rests in the sound discretion of the court.
(c) In the adjudicatory hearing on a petition alleging incapacity, the partial or total incapacity of the person must be established by clear and convincing evidence.
(6) ORDER DETERMINING INCAPACITY.If, after making findings of fact on the basis of clear and convincing evidence, the court finds that a person is incapacitated with respect to the exercise of a particular right, or all rights, the court shall enter a written order determining such incapacity. In determining incapacity, the court shall consider the person’s unique needs and abilities and may only remove those rights that the court finds the person does not have the capacity to exercise. A person is determined to be incapacitated only with respect to those rights specified in the order.
(a) The court shall make the following findings:
1. The exact nature and scope of the person’s incapacities;
2. The exact areas in which the person lacks capacity to make informed decisions about care and treatment services or to meet the essential requirements for her or his physical or mental health or safety;
3. The specific legal disabilities to which the person is subject; and
4. The specific rights that the person is incapable of exercising.
(b) When an order determines that a person is incapable of exercising delegable rights, the court must consider and find whether there is an alternative to guardianship that will sufficiently address the problems of the incapacitated person. A guardian may not be appointed if the court finds there is an alternative to guardianship which will sufficiently address the problems of the incapacitated person. If the court finds there is not an alternative to guardianship that sufficiently addresses the problems of the incapacitated person, a guardian must be appointed to exercise the incapacitated person’s delegable rights.
(c) In determining that a person is totally incapacitated, the order must contain findings of fact demonstrating that the individual is totally without capacity to care for herself or himself or her or his property.
(d) An order adjudicating a person to be incapacitated constitutes proof of such incapacity until further order of the court.
(e) After the order determining that the person is incapacitated has been filed with the clerk, it must be served on the incapacitated person. The person is deemed incapacitated only to the extent of the findings of the court. The filing of the order is notice of the incapacity. An incapacitated person retains all rights not specifically removed by the court.
(f) Upon the filing of a verified statement by an interested person stating:
1. That he or she has a good faith belief that the alleged incapacitated person’s trust, trust amendment, or durable power of attorney is invalid; and
2. A reasonable factual basis for that belief,

the trust, trust amendment, or durable power of attorney shall not be deemed to be an alternative to the appointment of a guardian. The appointment of a guardian does not limit the court’s power to determine that certain authority granted by a durable power of attorney is to remain exercisable by the agent.

(7) FEES.
(a) The examining committee and any attorney appointed under subsection (2) are entitled to reasonable fees to be determined by the court.
(b) The fees awarded under paragraph (a) shall be paid by the guardian from the property of the ward or, if the ward is indigent, by the state. The state shall have a creditor’s claim against the guardianship property for any amounts paid under this section. The state may file its claim within 90 days after the entry of an order awarding attorney ad litem fees. If the state does not file its claim within the 90-day period, the state is thereafter barred from asserting the claim. Upon petition by the state for payment of the claim, the court shall enter an order authorizing immediate payment out of the property of the ward. The state shall keep a record of the payments.
(c) If the petition is dismissed or denied:
1. The fees of the examining committee shall be paid upon court order as expert witness fees under s. 29.004(6).
2. Costs and attorney fees of the proceeding may be assessed against the petitioner if the court finds the petition to have been filed in bad faith. The petitioner shall also reimburse the state courts system for any amounts paid under subparagraph 1. upon such a finding. 9, 26, ch. 75-222; s. 4, ch. 77-328; s. 1, ch. 78-342; s. 6, ch. 79-221; s. 35, ch. 89-96; s. 20, ch. 90-271; s. 4, ch. 91-303; s. 5, ch. 91-306; s. 7, ch. 96-354; s. 1783, ch. 97-102; s. 76, ch. 2004-265; s. 4, ch. 2006-77; s. 11, ch. 2006-178; s. 44, ch. 2006-217; s. 28, ch. 2007-62; s. 11, ch. 2015-83; s. 33, ch. 2016-40; s. 1, ch. 2017-16; s. 89, ch. 2018-110; s. 35, ch. 2020-9; s. 11, ch. 2022-195.