Online Sunshine Logo
Official Internet Site of the Florida Legislature
April 15, 2024
Text: 'NEW Advanced Legislative Search'
Interpreter Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Go to MyFlorida House
Go to MyFlorida House
Select Year:  
The Florida Statutes

The 2023 Florida Statutes (including Special Session C)

Title XXXI
LABOR
Chapter 448
GENERAL LABOR REGULATIONS
View Entire Chapter
CHAPTER 448
CHAPTER 448
GENERAL LABOR REGULATIONS
PART I
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT
(ss. 448.01-448.111)
PART II
LABOR POOL ACT
(ss. 448.20-448.26)
PART I
TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT
448.01 Legal day’s work; extra pay.
448.03 Threat of discharge to compel employee to trade with any particular firm or person; penalty.
448.04 Penalty for officer or agent violating s. 448.03.
448.045 Wrongful combinations against workers.
448.05 Seats to be furnished for employees in stores; penalty.
448.07 Wage rate discrimination based on sex prohibited.
448.075 Employment discrimination on basis of sickle-cell trait prohibited.
448.076 Mandatory screening or testing for sickle-cell trait prohibited.
448.08 Attorney’s fees for successful litigants in actions for unpaid wages.
448.09 Unauthorized aliens; employment prohibited.
448.095 Employment eligibility.
448.101 Definitions.
448.102 Prohibitions.
448.103 Employee’s remedy; relief.
448.104 Attorney’s fees and costs.
448.105 Existing rights.
448.109 Notification of the state minimum wage.
448.110 State minimum wage; annual wage adjustment; enforcement.
448.111 Evidentiary standards for actions of a business during an emergency.
448.01 Legal day’s work; extra pay.
(1) Ten hours of labor shall be a legal day’s work, and when any person employed to perform manual labor of any kind by the day, week, month or year renders 10 hours of labor, he or she shall be considered to have performed a legal day’s work, unless a written contract has been signed by the person so employed and the employer, requiring a less or greater number of hours of labor to be performed daily.
(2) Unless such written contract has been made, the person employed shall be entitled to extra pay for all work performed by the requirement of his or her employer in excess of 10 hours’ labor daily.
History.ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 1988, 1874; RS 2117, 2118; GS 2641, 2642; RGS 4016, 4017; CGL 5939, 5940; s. 164, ch. 97-103.
448.03 Threat of discharge to compel employee to trade with any particular firm or person; penalty.Any person or persons, firm, joint stock company, association or corporation organized, chartered or incorporated by and under the laws of this state, either as owner or lessee, having persons in their service as employees, who shall discharge any employee or threaten to discharge any employee in their service for trading or dealing, or for not trading or dealing as a customer or patron with any particular merchant or other person or class of persons in any business calling, or shall notify any employee either by general or special notice, directly or indirectly, secretly or openly given, not to trade or deal as a customer or patron with any particular merchant or person or class of persons in any business or calling, under penalty of being discharged from the service of such person, firm, joint stock company, corporation or association shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.ss. 1, 2, ch. 5015, 1901; GS 3233; RGS 5066; CGL 7168; s. 374, ch. 71-136.
448.04 Penalty for officer or agent violating s. 448.03.Any person acting as an officer or agent of any firm, joint stock company, association or corporation of the kind and character as described in s. 448.03 or for any one of them, who makes or executes any notice, order or threat of the kind therein mentioned and forbidden, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.s. 2, ch. 5015, 1901; GS 3234; RGS 5067; CGL 7169; s. 375, ch. 71-136.
448.045 Wrongful combinations against workers.If two or more persons shall agree, conspire, combine or confederate together for the purpose of preventing any person from procuring work in any firm or corporation, or to cause the discharge of any person from work in such firm or corporation; or if any person shall verbally or by written or printed communication, threaten any injury to life, property or business of any person for the purpose of procuring the discharge of any worker in any firm or corporation, or to prevent any person from procuring work in such firm or corporation, such persons so combining shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.s. 1, ch. 4144, 1893; GS 3515; RGS 5401; CGL 7542; s. 983, ch. 71-136; s. 165, ch. 97-103.
Note.Former s. 833.02.
448.05 Seats to be furnished for employees in stores; penalty.If any merchant, storekeeper, employer of male or female clerks, salespeople, cash boys or cash girls, or other assistants, in mercantile or other business pursuits, requiring such employees to stand or walk during their active duties, neglect to furnish at his or her own cost or expense suitable chairs, stools or sliding seats attached to the counters or walls, for the use of such employees when not engaged in their active work, and not required to be on their feet in the proper performance of their several duties; or refuse to permit their said employees to make reasonable use of said seats during business hours, for purposes of necessary rest, and when such use will not interfere with humane or reasonable requirements of their employment, he or she shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.s. 1, ch. 4762, 1899; GS 3235; RGS 5068; CGL 7170; s. 376, ch. 71-136; s. 166, ch. 97-103.
448.07 Wage rate discrimination based on sex prohibited.
(1) DEFINITIONS.As used in this section, unless the context or subject matter clearly requires otherwise, the following terms shall have the meanings as defined in this section:
(a) “Employee” means any individual employed by an employer, including individuals employed by the state or any of its political subdivisions or instrumentalities of subdivisions.
(b) “Employer” means any person who employs two or more employees.
(c) “Wages” means and includes all compensation paid by an employer or his or her agent for the performance of service by an employee, including the cash value of all compensation paid in any medium other than cash.
(d) “Rate” with reference to wages means the basis of compensation for services by an employee for an employer and includes compensation based on time spent in the performance of such services, on the number of operations accomplished, or on the quality produced or handled.
(e) “Unpaid wages” means the difference between the wages actually paid to an employee and the wages required to be paid an employee pursuant to subsection (3).
(2) DISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF SEX PROHIBITED.
(a) No employer shall discriminate between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees at a rate less than the rate at which he or she pays wages to employees of the opposite sex for equal work on jobs the performance of which requires equal skill, effort, and responsibility, and which are performed under similar working conditions, except when such payment is made pursuant to:
1. A seniority system;
2. A merit system;
3. A system which measures earnings by quantity or quality of production; or
4. A differential based on any reasonable factor other than sex when exercised in good faith.
(b) No person shall cause or attempt to cause an employer to discriminate against any employee in violation of the provisions of this section.
(3) CIVIL ACTION FOR UNPAID WAGES.Any employer or person who violates the provisions of this section is liable to the employee for the amount of the difference between the amount the employee was paid and the amount he or she should have been paid under this section. Nothing in this section allows a claimant to recover more than an amount equal to his or her unpaid wages while so employed for 1 year prior to the filing of the claim. An action to recover such liability may be maintained in any court of competent jurisdiction by the aggrieved employee within 6 months after termination of employment. The court in such action may award to the prevailing party costs of the action and a reasonable attorney’s fee.
(4) Nothing in this section or in s. 725.07, relating to discrimination based on sex in providing equal pay for equal services performed, is applicable to any employer, labor organization or member thereof, or employee whose employer is subject to the federal Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended.
History.ss. 1, 2, 3, 4, ch. 69-5; s. 1, ch. 84-345; s. 167, ch. 97-103.
448.075 Employment discrimination on basis of sickle-cell trait prohibited.No person, firm, corporation, unincorporated association, state agency, unit of local government, or any public or private entity shall deny or refuse employment to any person or discharge any person from employment solely because such person has the sickle-cell trait.
History.s. 3, ch. 78-35.
448.076 Mandatory screening or testing for sickle-cell trait prohibited.No person, firm, corporation, unincorporated association, state agency, unit of local government, or any public or private entity shall require screening or testing for the sickle-cell trait as a condition for employment, for admission into any state educational institution or state-chartered private educational institution, or for becoming eligible for adoption if otherwise eligible for adoption under the laws of this state.
History.s. 4, ch. 78-35.
448.08 Attorney’s fees for successful litigants in actions for unpaid wages.The court may award to the prevailing party in an action for unpaid wages costs of the action and a reasonable attorney’s fee.
History.s. 1, ch. 78-327.
1448.09 Unauthorized aliens; employment prohibited.
(1) It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to employ, hire, recruit, or refer, either for herself or himself or on behalf of another, for private or public employment within the state, an alien who is not duly authorized to work by the immigration laws or the Attorney General of the United States.
(2) The first violation of subsection (1) shall be a noncriminal violation as defined in s. 775.08(3) and, upon conviction, shall be punishable as provided in s. 775.082(5) by a civil fine of not more than $500, regardless of the number of aliens with respect to whom the violation occurred.
(3) Any person who has been previously convicted for a violation of subsection (1) and who thereafter violates subsection (1), shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Any such subsequent violation of this section shall constitute a separate offense with respect to each unauthorized alien.
History.ss. 1, 2, 3, ch. 77-250; s. 193, ch. 79-400; s. 82, ch. 91-224; s. 168, ch. 97-103; s. 6, ch. 2023-40.
1Note.Section 6, ch. 2023-40, amended s. 448.09, effective July 1, 2024, to read:

448.09 Unauthorized aliens; employment prohibited.

(1) It is unlawful for any person to knowingly employ, hire, recruit, or refer, either for herself or himself or on behalf of another, for private or public employment within this state, an alien who is not duly authorized to work by the immigration laws of the United States, the Attorney General of the United States, or the United States Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security.

(2) If the Department of Economic Opportunity finds or is notified by an entity specified in s. 448.095(3)(a) that an employer has knowingly employed an unauthorized alien without verifying the employment eligibility of such person, the department must enter an order pursuant to chapter 120 making such determination and require repayment of any economic development incentive pursuant to s. 288.061(6).

(3) For a violation of this section, the department shall place the employer on probation for a 1-year period and require that the employer report quarterly to the department to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of subsection (1) and s. 448.095.

(4) Any violation of this section which takes place within 24 months after a previous violation constitutes grounds for the suspension or revocation of all licenses issued by a licensing agency subject to chapter 120. The department shall take the following actions for a violation involving:

(a) One to ten unauthorized aliens, suspension of all applicable licenses held by a private employer for up to 30 days by the respective agencies that issued them.

(b) Eleven to fifty unauthorized aliens, suspension of all applicable licenses held by a private employer for up to 60 days by the respective agencies that issued them.

(c) More than fifty unauthorized aliens, revocation of all applicable licenses held by a private employer by the respective agencies that issued them.

(5) An alien who is not duly authorized to work by the immigration laws of the United States, the Attorney General of the United States, or the United States Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security and who knowingly uses a false identification document or who fraudulently uses an identification document of another person for the purpose of obtaining employment commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

448.095 Employment eligibility.
(1) DEFINITIONS.As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Contractor” means a person or an entity that has entered or is attempting to enter into a contract with a public agency to provide labor, supplies, or services to such agency in exchange for salary, wages, or other remuneration.
(b) “Employee” means an individual filling a permanent position who performs labor or services under the control or direction of an employer that has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed in exchange for salary, wages, or other remuneration. An individual hired for casual labor, as defined in s. 443.036, which is to be performed entirely within a private residence, is not an employee of an occupant or owner of a private residence. An independent contractor, as defined in federal laws or regulations, hired to perform a specified portion of labor or services is not an employee.
(c) “E-Verify system” means an Internet-based system operated by the United States Department of Homeland Security which allows participating employers to electronically verify the employment eligibility of new employees.
(d) “Public agency” means any office, department, agency, division, subdivision, political subdivision, board, bureau, commission, authority, district, public body, body politic, state, county, city, town, village, municipality, or any other separate unit of government created or established pursuant to law, and any other public or private agency, person, partnership, corporation, or business entity acting on behalf of any public agency.
(e) “Subcontractor” means a person or an entity that provides labor, supplies, or services to or for a contractor or another subcontractor in exchange for salary, wages, or other remuneration.
(f) “Unauthorized alien” means an individual who is not authorized under federal law to be employed in the United States, as described in 8 U.S.C. s. 1324a(h)(3). The term must be interpreted consistently with that section and any applicable federal rules or regulations.
(2) EMPLOYMENT VERIFICATION.
(a) An employer shall verify each new employee’s employment eligibility within 3 business days after the first day that the new employee begins working for pay as required under 8 C.F.R. s. 274a.
(b)1. A public agency shall use the E-Verify system to verify a new employee’s employment eligibility as required under paragraph (a).
2. Beginning on July 1, 2023, a private employer with 25 or more employees shall use the E-Verify system to verify a new employee’s employment eligibility as required under paragraph (a).
3. Each employer required to use the E-Verify system under this paragraph must certify on its first return each calendar year to the tax service provider that it is in compliance with this section when making contributions to or reimbursing the state’s unemployment compensation or reemployment assistance system. An employer that voluntarily uses the E-Verify system may also make such a certification on its first return each calendar year in order to document such use.
(c) If the E-Verify system is unavailable for 3 business days after the first day that the new employee begins working for pay and an employer cannot access the system to verify a new employee’s employment eligibility, the employer must use the Employment Eligibility Verification form (Form I-9) to verify employment eligibility. The unavailability of the E-Verify system does not bar the employer from using the rebuttable presumption established in paragraph (4)(a). An employer must document the unavailability of the E-Verify system by retaining a screenshot from each day which shows the employer’s lack of access to the system, a public announcement that the E-Verify system is not available, or any other communication or notice recorded by the employer regarding the unavailability of the system.
(d) The employer must retain a copy of the documentation provided and any official verification generated, if applicable, for at least 3 years.
(e) An employer may not continue to employ an unauthorized alien after obtaining knowledge that a person is or has become an unauthorized alien.
(f) An employee leasing company licensed under part XI of chapter 468 which enters into a written agreement or understanding with a client company which places the primary obligation for compliance with this section upon the client company is not required to verify employment eligibility of any new employees of the client company. In the absence of a written agreement or understanding, the employee leasing company is responsible for compliance with this section. Such employee leasing company shall, at all times, remain an employer as otherwise defined in federal laws or regulations.
(3) ENFORCEMENT.
(a) For the purpose of enforcement of this section, any of the following persons or entities may request, and an employer must provide, copies of any documentation relied upon by the employer for the verification of a new employee’s employment eligibility:
1. The Department of Law Enforcement;
2. The Attorney General;
3. The state attorney in the circuit in which the new employee works;
4. The statewide prosecutor; or
5. The Department of Economic Opportunity.
(b) A person or an entity that makes a request under paragraph (a) must rely upon the Federal Government to verify an employee’s employment eligibility and may not independently make a final determination as to whether an employee is an unauthorized alien.
(4) DEFENSES.
(a) An employer that uses the E-Verify system or, if that system is unavailable, the Employment Eligibility Verification form (Form I-9) as provided in paragraph (2)(c), with respect to the employment of an unauthorized alien has established a rebuttable presumption that the employer has not violated s. 448.09 with respect to such employment.
(b) An employer that uses the same documentation that is required by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services on its Employment Eligibility Verification form (Form I-9) with respect to the employment of an unauthorized alien, has established an affirmative defense that the employer has not violated s. 448.09 with respect to such employment.
(5) PUBLIC AGENCY CONTRACTING.
(a) A public agency must require in any contract that the contractor, and any subcontractor thereof, register with and use the E-Verify system to verify the work authorization status of all new employees of the contractor or subcontractor. A public agency or a contractor or subcontractor thereof may not enter into a contract unless each party to the contract registers with and uses the E-Verify system.
(b) If a contractor enters into a contract with a subcontractor, the subcontractor must provide the contractor with an affidavit stating that the subcontractor does not employ, contract with, or subcontract with an unauthorized alien. The contractor shall maintain a copy of such affidavit for the duration of the contract.
(c)1. A public agency, contractor, or subcontractor who has a good faith belief that a person or an entity with which it is contracting has knowingly violated s. 448.09(1) shall terminate the contract with the person or entity.
2. A public agency that has a good faith belief that a subcontractor knowingly violated this subsection, but the contractor otherwise complied with this subsection, shall promptly notify the contractor and order the contractor to immediately terminate the contract with the subcontractor.
3. A contract terminated under this paragraph is not a breach of contract and may not be considered as such. If a public agency terminates a contract with a contractor under this paragraph, the contractor may not be awarded a public contract for at least 1 year after the date on which the contract was terminated. A contractor is liable for any additional costs incurred by a public agency as a result of the termination of a contract.
(d) A public agency, contractor, or subcontractor may file a cause of action with a circuit or county court to challenge a termination under paragraph (c) no later than 20 calendar days after the date on which the contract was terminated.
(6) COMPLIANCE.
(a) In addition to the requirements under s. 288.061(6), beginning on July 1, 2024, if the Department of Economic Opportunity determines that an employer failed to use the E-Verify system to verify the employment eligibility of employees as required under this section, the department must notify the employer of the department’s determination of noncompliance and provide the employer with 30 days to cure the noncompliance.
(b) If the Department of Economic Opportunity determines that an employer failed to use the E-Verify system as required under this section three times in any 24-month period, the department must impose a fine of $1,000 per day until the employer provides sufficient proof to the department that the noncompliance is cured. Noncompliance constitutes grounds for the suspension of all licenses issued by a licensing agency subject to chapter 120 until the noncompliance is cured.
(c) Fines collected under this subsection must be deposited into the State Economic Enhancement and Development Trust Fund for use by the department for employer outreach and public notice of the state’s employment verification laws.
(7) CONSTRUCTION.
(a) This section must be enforced without regard to race, color, or national origin and must be construed in a manner so as to be fully consistent with any applicable federal laws or regulations.
(b) The requirements to use the E-Verify system under this section do not apply in any federal fiscal year in which the system is not funded by the Federal Government.
(c) This section shall expire 60 days after the E-Verify system is no longer a pilot program, and the Federal Government requires the use of the E-Verify system by all employers in the United States.
History.s. 2, ch. 2020-149; s. 7, ch. 2023-40.
448.101 Definitions.As used in ss. 448.101-448.105, the term:
(1) “Appropriate governmental agency” means any agency of government charged with the enforcement of laws, rules, or regulations governing an activity, policy, or practice of an employer.
(2) “Employee” means a person who performs services for and under the control and direction of an employer for wages or other remuneration. The term does not include an independent contractor.
(3) “Employer” means any private individual, firm, partnership, institution, corporation, or association that employs ten or more persons.
(4) “Law, rule, or regulation” includes any statute or ordinance or any rule or regulation adopted pursuant to any federal, state, or local statute or ordinance applicable to the employer and pertaining to the business.
(5) “Retaliatory personnel action” means the discharge, suspension, or demotion by an employer of an employee or any other adverse employment action taken by an employer against an employee in the terms and conditions of employment.
(6) “Supervisor” means any individual within an employer’s organization who has the authority to direct and control the work performance of the affected employee or who has managerial authority to take corrective action regarding the violation of law, rule, or regulation of which the employee complains.
History.s. 4, ch. 91-285.
448.102 Prohibitions.An employer may not take any retaliatory personnel action against an employee because the employee has:
(1) Disclosed, or threatened to disclose, to any appropriate governmental agency, under oath, in writing, an activity, policy, or practice of the employer that is in violation of a law, rule, or regulation. However, this subsection does not apply unless the employee has, in writing, brought the activity, policy, or practice to the attention of a supervisor or the employer and has afforded the employer a reasonable opportunity to correct the activity, policy, or practice.
(2) Provided information to, or testified before, any appropriate governmental agency, person, or entity conducting an investigation, hearing, or inquiry into an alleged violation of a law, rule, or regulation by the employer.
(3) Objected to, or refused to participate in, any activity, policy, or practice of the employer which is in violation of a law, rule, or regulation.
History.s. 5, ch. 91-285.
448.103 Employee’s remedy; relief.
(1)(a) An employee who has been the object of a retaliatory personnel action in violation of this act may institute a civil action in a court of competent jurisdiction for relief as set forth in subsection (2) within 2 years after discovering that the alleged retaliatory personnel action was taken, or within 4 years after the personnel action was taken, whichever is earlier.
(b) Any civil action authorized under this section may be brought in the county in which the alleged retaliatory personnel action occurred, in which the complainant resides, or in which the employer has its principal place of business.
(c) An employee may not recover in any action brought pursuant to this subsection if he or she failed to notify the employer about the illegal activity, policy, or practice as required by s. 448.102(1) or if the retaliatory personnel action was predicated upon a ground other than the employee’s exercise of a right protected by this act.
(2) In any action brought pursuant to subsection (1), the court may order relief as follows:
(a) An injunction restraining continued violation of this act.
(b) Reinstatement of the employee to the same position held before the retaliatory personnel action, or to an equivalent position.
(c) Reinstatement of full fringe benefits and seniority rights.
(d) Compensation for lost wages, benefits, and other remuneration.
(e) Any other compensatory damages allowable at law.
History.s. 6, ch. 91-285; s. 169, ch. 97-103.
448.104 Attorney’s fees and costs.A court may award reasonable attorney’s fees, court costs, and expenses to the prevailing party.
History.s. 7, ch. 91-285.
448.105 Existing rights.This act does not diminish the rights, privileges, or remedies of an employee or employer under any other law or rule or under any collective bargaining agreement or employment contract.
History.s. 8, ch. 91-285.
448.109 Notification of the state minimum wage.
(1) As used in this section, the terms:
(a) “Employer,” “employee,” and “wage” have the meanings as established under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act and its implementing regulations.
(b) “Florida minimum wage” means the wage that an employer must, at a minimum, pay an employee pursuant to s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution and implementing law.
(2) Each employer who must pay an employee the Florida minimum wage shall prominently display a poster substantially similar to the one made available pursuant to subsection (3) in a conspicuous and accessible place in each establishment where such employees are employed.
(3)(a) Each year the Department of Economic Opportunity shall, on or before December 1, create and make available to employers a poster in English and in Spanish which reads substantially as follows:

NOTICE TO EMPLOYEES

The Florida minimum wage is $   (amount)   per hour, with a minimum wage of at least $   (amount)   per hour for tipped employees, in addition to tips, for January 1,   (year)  , through December 31,   (year)  .

The rate of the minimum wage is recalculated yearly on September 30, based on the Consumer Price Index. Every year on January 1 the new Florida minimum wage takes effect.

An employer may not retaliate against an employee for exercising his or her right to receive the minimum wage. Rights protected by the State Constitution include the right to:

1. File a complaint about an employer’s alleged noncompliance with lawful minimum wage requirements.

2. Inform any person about an employer’s alleged noncompliance with lawful minimum wage requirements.

3. Inform any person of his or her potential rights under Section 24, Article X of the State Constitution and to assist him or her in asserting such rights.

An employee who has not received the lawful minimum wage after notifying his or her employer and giving the employer 15 days to resolve any claims for unpaid wages may bring a civil action in a court of law against an employer to recover back wages plus damages and attorney’s fees.

An employer found liable for intentionally violating minimum wage requirements is subject to a fine of $1,000 per violation, payable to the state.

The Attorney General or other official designated by the Legislature may bring a civil action to enforce the minimum wage.

For details see Section 24, Article X of the State Constitution.

(b) The poster must be at least 8.5 inches by 11 inches and in a format easily seen by employees. The text in the poster must be of a conspicuous size. The text in the first line must be larger than the text of any other line, and the text of the first sentence must be in bold type and larger than the text in the remaining lines.
History.s. 1, ch. 2006-84; s. 398, ch. 2011-142.
448.110 State minimum wage; annual wage adjustment; enforcement.
(1) This section may be cited as the “Florida Minimum Wage Act.”
(2) The purpose of this section is to provide measures appropriate for the implementation of s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution, in accordance with authority granted to the Legislature pursuant to s. 24(f), Art. X of the State Constitution. To implement s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution, the Department of Economic Opportunity is designated as the state Agency for Workforce Innovation.
(3) Employers shall pay employees a minimum wage at an hourly rate of $6.15 for all hours worked in Florida. Only those individuals entitled to receive the federal minimum wage under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, as amended, and its implementing regulations shall be eligible to receive the state minimum wage pursuant to s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution and this section. The provisions of ss. 213 and 214 of the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, as interpreted by applicable federal regulations and implemented by the Secretary of Labor, are incorporated herein.
(4)(a) Beginning September 30, 2005, and annually on September 30 thereafter, the Department of Economic Opportunity shall calculate an adjusted state minimum wage rate by increasing the state minimum wage by the rate of inflation for the 12 months prior to September 1. In calculating the adjusted state minimum wage, the Department of Economic Opportunity shall use the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, not seasonally adjusted, for the South Region or a successor index as calculated by the United States Department of Labor. Each adjusted state minimum wage rate shall take effect on the following January 1, with the initial adjusted minimum wage rate to take effect on January 1, 2006.
(b) The Department of Revenue and the Department of Economic Opportunity shall annually publish the amount of the adjusted state minimum wage and the effective date. Publication shall occur by posting the adjusted state minimum wage rate and the effective date on the Internet home pages of the Department of Economic Opportunity and the Department of Revenue by October 15 of each year. In addition, to the extent funded in the General Appropriations Act, the Department of Economic Opportunity shall provide written notice of the adjusted rate and the effective date of the adjusted state minimum wage to all employers registered in the most current reemployment assistance database. Such notice shall be mailed by November 15 of each year using the addresses included in the database. Employers are responsible for maintaining current address information in the reemployment assistance database. The Department of Economic Opportunity is not responsible for failure to provide notice due to incorrect or incomplete address information in the database. The Department of Economic Opportunity shall provide the Department of Revenue with the adjusted state minimum wage rate information and effective date in a timely manner.
(5) It shall be unlawful for an employer or any other party to discriminate in any manner or take adverse action against any person in retaliation for exercising rights protected pursuant to s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution. Rights protected include, but are not limited to, the right to file a complaint or inform any person of his or her potential rights pursuant to s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution and to assist him or her in asserting such rights.
(6)(a) Any person aggrieved by a violation of this section may bring a civil action in a court of competent jurisdiction against an employer violating this section or a party violating subsection (5). However, prior to bringing any claim for unpaid minimum wages pursuant to this section, the person aggrieved shall notify the employer alleged to have violated this section, in writing, of an intent to initiate such an action. The notice must identify the minimum wage to which the person aggrieved claims entitlement, the actual or estimated work dates and hours for which payment is sought, and the total amount of alleged unpaid wages through the date of the notice.
(b) The employer shall have 15 calendar days after receipt of the notice to pay the total amount of unpaid wages or otherwise resolve the claim to the satisfaction of the person aggrieved. The statute of limitations for bringing an action pursuant to this section shall be tolled during this 15-day period. If the employer fails to pay the total amount of unpaid wages or otherwise resolve the claim to the satisfaction of the person aggrieved, then the person aggrieved may bring a claim for unpaid minimum wages, the terms of which must be consistent with the contents of the notice.
(c)1. Upon prevailing in an action brought pursuant to this section, aggrieved persons shall recover the full amount of any unpaid back wages unlawfully withheld plus the same amount as liquidated damages and shall be awarded reasonable attorney’s fees and costs. As provided under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act, pursuant to s. 11 of the Portal-to-Portal Act of 1947, 29 U.S.C. s. 260, if the employer proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the act or omission giving rise to such action was in good faith and that the employer had reasonable grounds for believing that his or her act or omission was not a violation of s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution, the court may, in its sound discretion, award no liquidated damages or award any amount thereof not to exceed an amount equal to the amount of unpaid minimum wages. The court shall not award any economic damages on a claim for unpaid minimum wages not expressly authorized in this section.
2. Upon prevailing in an action brought pursuant to this section, aggrieved persons shall also be entitled to such legal or equitable relief as may be appropriate to remedy the violation, including, without limitation, reinstatement in employment and injunctive relief. However, any entitlement to legal or equitable relief in an action brought under s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution shall not include punitive damages.
(d) Any civil action brought under s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution and this section shall be subject to s. 768.79.
(7) The Attorney General may bring a civil action to enforce this section. The Attorney General may seek injunctive relief. In addition to injunctive relief, or in lieu thereof, for any employer or other person found to have willfully violated this section, the Attorney General may seek to impose a fine of $1,000 per violation, payable to the state.
(8) The statute of limitations for an action brought pursuant to this section shall be for the period of time specified in s. 95.11 beginning on the date the alleged violation occurred.
(9) Actions brought pursuant to this section may be brought as a class action pursuant to Rule 1.220, Florida Rules of Civil Procedure. In any class action brought pursuant to this section, the plaintiffs shall prove, by a preponderance of the evidence, the individual identity of each class member and the individual damages of each class member.
(10) This section shall constitute the exclusive remedy under state law for violations of s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution.
(11) Except for calculating the adjusted state minimum wage and publishing the initial state minimum wage and any annual adjustments thereto, the authority of the Department of Economic Opportunity in implementing s. 24, Art. X of the State Constitution, pursuant to this section, shall be limited to that authority expressly granted by the Legislature.
History.s. 2, ch. 2005-353; s. 399, ch. 2011-142; s. 73, ch. 2012-30; s. 1, ch. 2023-222.
448.111 Evidentiary standards for actions of a business during an emergency.
(1) For purposes of this section, the term “engaged individual” means an individual who provides a good or service to a business or on behalf of a business and who is remunerated for the good or service regardless of the individual’s classification as an employee or independent contractor.
(2) Notwithstanding any other law, the following actions of a business, if taken during a public health emergency declared by the State Health Officer under s. 381.00315 or a state of emergency declared by the Governor under s. 252.36, may not be used as evidence in a civil cause of action brought under s. 440.10, s. 440.192, s. 440.38, s. 440.381, s. 448.103, s. 448.110, s. 448.25, chapter 532, or s. 717.115, or in a civil cause of action, as provided for under general law, to recover lost wages, salary, employment benefits, or other compensation, because an individual has not been properly classified as an employee:
(a) Providing financial assistance to previously engaged individuals who are unable to work because of health and safety concerns.
(b) Directly providing benefits that are related to the health and safety of engaged individuals, including medical or cleaning supplies, personal protective equipment, health checks, or medical testing.
(c) Providing training or information related to the health and safety of engaged individuals or the public.
(d) Taking any action, including action required or suggested by any federal, state, or local law, ordinance, order, or directive which is intended to protect public health and safety.
History.s. 1, ch. 2022-99.
PART II
LABOR POOL ACT
448.20 Short title.
448.21 Legislative intent.
448.22 Definitions.
448.23 Exclusions.
448.24 Duties and rights.
448.25 Remedies; damages; costs.
448.26 Application.
448.20 Short title.This part may be cited as the “Labor Pool Act.”
History.s. 1, ch. 95-332.
448.21 Legislative intent.The Legislature finds that this part is necessary to provide for the health, safety, and well-being of day laborers throughout the state and to establish uniform standards of conduct and practice for labor pools in the state, and this part shall be carried out in accordance with this purpose.
History.s. 1, ch. 95-332.
448.22 Definitions.For the purposes of this part:
(1) “Labor pool” means a business entity that operates a labor hall by one or more of the following methods:
(a) Contracting with third-party users to supply day laborers to them on a temporary basis.
(b) Hiring, employing, recruiting, or contracting with workers to fulfill these temporary labor contracts for day labor.
(c) Fulfilling any contracts for day labor in accordance with this subsection, even if the entity also conducts other business.
(2) “Day labor” means temporary labor or employment that is occasional or irregular for which the worker is employed for not longer than the time period required to complete the temporary assignment for which the individual worker was hired, although an individual may be eligible for additional temporary assignments when available.
(3) “Labor hall” means a central location maintained by a labor pool where day laborers assemble and are dispatched to work for a third-party user.
(4) “Business entity” means any individual, corporation, business partnership, firm, institution, or association.
(5) “Third-party user” means a business entity that uses the services of a day laborer provided by a labor pool.
History.s. 1, ch. 95-332.
448.23 Exclusions.Except as specified in ss. 448.22(1)(c) and 448.26, this part does not apply to:
(1) Business entities duly registered as farm labor contractors pursuant to part III of chapter 450;
(2) Employee leasing companies, as defined in s. 468.520;
(3) Temporary help services engaged in supplying solely white collar employees, secretarial employees, clerical employees, or skilled laborers;
(4) Labor union hiring halls; or
(5) Labor bureau or employment offices operated by a business entity for the sole purpose of employing an individual for its own use.
History.s. 1, ch. 95-332; s. 2, ch. 2006-10.
448.24 Duties and rights.
(1) No labor pool shall charge a day laborer:
(a) For safety equipment, clothing, accessories, or any other items required by the nature of the work either by law, custom, or as a requirement of the third-party user:
1. This subsection shall not preclude the labor pool from charging the day laborer the market value of items temporarily provided to the worker by the labor pool, in the event that the worker willfully fails to return such items to the labor pool.
2. For items other than those referenced in this paragraph, which the labor pool makes available for purchase, the day laborer shall be charged no more than the actual cost of the item to the labor pool, or market value, whichever is less.
(b) More than a reasonable amount to transport a worker to or from the designated worksite, but in no event shall the amount exceed $1.50 each way; or
(c) For directly or indirectly cashing a worker’s check.
(2) A labor pool shall:
(a) Select one of the following methods of payment to compensate a day laborer for work performed:
1. Cash.
2. Commonly accepted negotiable instruments that are payable in cash, on demand at a financial institution, and without discount.
3. Payroll debit card.
4. Electronic fund transfer, which must be made to a financial institution designated by the day laborer.
(b) Before a day laborer’s first pay period, provide notice to the day laborer of the method of payment that the labor pool intends to use for payroll and the day laborer’s options to elect a different method of payment, and authorize the day laborer to elect not to be paid by payroll debit card or electronic fund transfer.
(c) If selecting to compensate a day laborer by payroll debit card:
1. Offer the day laborer the option to elect payment by electronic fund transfer; and
2. Before selecting payroll debit card, provide the day laborer with a list, including the address, of a business that is in close proximity to the labor pool and that does not charge a fee to withdraw the contents of the payroll debit card.
(d) Compensate day laborers at or above the minimum wage, in conformance with s. 448.01. Deductions, other than those authorized by federal or state law, may not bring the worker’s pay below minimum wage for the hours worked.
(e) Comply with all requirements of chapter 440.
(f) Insure any motor vehicle owned or operated by the labor hall and used for the transportation of workers pursuant to Florida Statutes.
(g) At the time of each payment of wages, furnish each worker a written itemized statement showing in detail each deduction made from such wages. A labor pool may deliver this statement electronically upon written request of the day laborer.
(h) Provide each worker with an annual earnings summary within a reasonable period of time after the end of the preceding calendar year, but no later than February 1.
(3) No labor pool shall request or require that any day laborer sign any document waiving the protections of this part.
(4) No labor pool shall charge more than the actual cost of providing lunch, if lunch is provided at the worksite by the labor pool. In no case shall the purchase of lunch be a condition of employment.
(5) A labor pool that operates a labor hall must provide facilities for a worker waiting at the labor hall for a job assignment that include restroom facilities, drinking water, and sufficient seating. A labor pool satisfies requirements for providing restroom facilities and drinking water if its labor hall facilities comply with all minimum requirements for public restrooms and drinking fountains in the Florida Building Code and any local amendments thereto. A labor pool may also provide drinking water through a water cooler dispenser, by offering bottled water, or by any other similar means.
(6) No labor pool shall restrict the right of a day laborer to accept a permanent position with a third-party user to whom the laborer is referred for temporary work, or to restrict the right of such a third-party user to offer such employment to an employee of the labor pool. However, nothing shall restrict the labor pool from receiving a reasonable placement fee from the third-party user.
(7) Nothing in this part precludes the labor pool from providing a day laborer with a method of obtaining cash from a cash-dispensing machine that is located on the premises of the labor pool and is operated by the labor pool, or by an affiliate, pursuant to chapter 560, if required, for a fee for each transaction which may not exceed $1.99, provided:
(a) The labor pool offers payment in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (2)(a).
(b) The day laborer voluntarily elects to accept payment in cash after disclosure of the fee.
(c) The cash-dispensing machine requires affirmative action by the day laborer with respect to imposition of the fee and allows the day laborer to negate the transaction in lieu of payment in compliance with paragraph (2)(a).
History.s. 1, ch. 95-332; s. 10, ch. 2001-65; s. 1, ch. 2006-10; s. 1, ch. 2015-20; s. 1, ch. 2023-138.
448.25 Remedies; damages; costs.
(1)(a) Any worker aggrieved by a violation of s. 448.24 has the right to bring a civil action in a court of competent jurisdiction against the labor pool responsible for such violation.
(b) Before bringing a civil action pursuant to this section, an aggrieved worker must give the labor pool a reasonable opportunity to cure the alleged violation. The aggrieved worker must serve the labor pool in accordance with s. 48.081 with written notice of the alleged violation. Such notice must include a statement that failure by the labor pool to cure the alleged violation within 60 days after receipt of the notice may result in a civil action being filed against it in a court of competent jurisdiction. A labor pool may cure a violation relating to its labor hall facilities by modifying the alleged violation to comply with s. 448.24(5).
(c) In any action commenced pursuant to this section, the aggrieved worker is entitled to recover actual and consequential damages, or $1,000, whichever is greater, for each violation of s. 448.24, and costs.
(2) A civil action brought under s. 448.24 must be filed within 1 year after the date the aggrieved worker serves written notice of the alleged violation on the labor pool.
(3) The remedies provided by this part for a violation of s. 448.24 are exclusive and preclude the aggrieved worker from pursuing any other remedy at law or equity which the worker may have.
History.s. 1, ch. 95-332; s. 2, ch. 2023-138.
448.26 Application.Nothing in this part shall exempt any client of any labor pool or temporary help arrangement entity as defined in s. 468.520(4)(a) or any assigned employee from any other license requirements of state, local, or federal law. Any employee assigned to a client who is licensed, registered, or certified pursuant to law shall be deemed an employee of the client for such licensure purposes but shall remain an employee of the labor pool or temporary help arrangement entity for purposes of chapters 440 and 443.
History.s. 3, ch. 2006-10.