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The Florida Statutes

The 2017 Florida Statutes

Title XLVII
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE AND CORRECTIONS
Chapter 985
JUVENILE JUSTICE; INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES
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CHAPTER 985
CHAPTER 985
JUVENILE JUSTICE; INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES
PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
(ss. 985.01-985.039)
PART II
RECORDS AND INFORMATION
(ss. 985.04-985.047)
PART III
CUSTODY AND INTAKE; INTERVENTION AND
DIVERSION
(ss. 985.101-985.17)
PART IV
EXAMINATIONS AND EVALUATIONS
(ss. 985.18-985.195)
PART V
DETENTION
(ss. 985.24-985.275)
PART VI
PETITION, ARRAIGNMENT, AND ADJUDICATION
(ss. 985.318-985.35)
PART VII
DISPOSITION; POSTDISPOSITION
(ss. 985.43-985.494)
PART VIII
AUTHORITY OF THE COURT OVER PARENTS OR
GUARDIANS
(ss. 985.511-985.514)
PART IX
APPEAL
(ss. 985.534-985.536)
PART X
TRANSFER TO ADULT COURT
(ss. 985.556-985.57)
PART XI
DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE
(ss. 985.601-985.692)
PART XII
MISCELLANEOUS OFFENSES
(ss. 985.701-985.731)
PART XIII
INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES
(ss. 985.801-985.8025)
PART I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
985.01 Purposes and intent.
985.02 Legislative intent for the juvenile justice system.
985.03 Definitions.
985.0301 Jurisdiction.
985.032 Legal representation for delinquency cases.
985.033 Right to counsel.
985.035 Opening hearings.
985.036 Rights of victims; juvenile proceedings.
985.037 Punishment for contempt of court; alternative sanctions.
985.039 Cost of supervision; cost of care.
985.01 Purposes and intent.
(1) The purposes of this chapter are:
(a) To increase public safety by reducing juvenile delinquency through effective prevention, intervention, and treatment services that strengthen and reform the lives of children.
(b) To provide judicial and other procedures to assure due process through which children, victims, and other interested parties are assured fair hearings by a respectful and respected court or other tribunal and the recognition, protection, and enforcement of their constitutional and other legal rights, while ensuring that public safety interests and the authority and dignity of the courts are adequately protected.
(c) To provide an environment that fosters healthy social, emotional, intellectual, educational, and physical development; to ensure secure and safe custody; and to promote the health and well-being of all children under the state’s care.
(d) To ensure the protection of society, by providing for a comprehensive standardized assessment of the child’s needs so that the most appropriate control, discipline, punishment, and treatment can be administered consistent with the seriousness of the act committed, the community’s long-term need for public safety, the prior record of the child, and the specific rehabilitation needs of the child, while also providing, whenever possible, restitution to the victim of the offense.
(e) To preserve and strengthen the child’s family ties whenever possible, by providing for removal of the child from the physical custody of a parent only when his or her welfare or the safety and protection of the public cannot be adequately safeguarded without such removal; and, when the child is removed from his or her own family, to secure custody, care, and discipline for the child as nearly as possible equivalent to that which should have been given by the parents.
(f)1. To assure that the adjudication and disposition of a child alleged or found to have committed a violation of Florida law be exercised with appropriate discretion and in keeping with the seriousness of the offense and the need for treatment services, and that all findings made under this chapter be based upon facts presented at a hearing that meets the constitutional standards of fundamental fairness and due process.
2. To assure that the sentencing and placement of a child tried as an adult be appropriate and in keeping with the seriousness of the offense and the child’s need for rehabilitative services, and that the proceedings and procedures applicable to such sentencing and placement be applied within the full framework of constitutional standards of fundamental fairness and due process.
(g) To provide children committed to the department with training in life skills, including career and technical education, when appropriate.
(h) To care for children in the least restrictive and most appropriate service environments to ensure that children assessed as low and moderate risk to reoffend are not committed to residential programs, unless the court deems such placement appropriate.
(i) To allocate resources for the most effective programs, services, and treatments to ensure that children, their families, and their community support systems are connected with these programs at the points along the juvenile justice continuum where they will have the most impact.
(2) It is the intent of the Legislature that this chapter be liberally interpreted and construed in conformity with its declared purposes.
History.s. 1, ch. 97-238; s. 12, ch. 2001-125; s. 64, ch. 2004-267; ss. 2, 87, ch. 2006-120; s. 1, ch. 2014-162.
985.02 Legislative intent for the juvenile justice system.
(1) GENERAL PROTECTIONS FOR CHILDREN.It is a purpose of the Legislature that the children of this state be provided with the following protections:
(a) Protection from abuse, neglect, and exploitation.
(b) A permanent and stable home.
(c) A safe and nurturing environment which will preserve a sense of personal dignity and integrity.
(d) Adequate nutrition, shelter, and clothing.
(e) Effective treatment to address physical, social, and emotional needs, regardless of geographical location.
(f) Equal opportunity and access to quality and effective education, which will meet the individual needs of each child, and to recreation and other community resources to develop individual abilities.
(g) Access to prevention programs and services.
(h) Gender-specific programming and gender-specific program models and services that comprehensively address the needs of a targeted gender group.
(2) SUBSTANCE ABUSE SERVICES.The Legislature finds that children in the care of the state’s delinquency system need appropriate health care services, that the impact of substance abuse on health indicates the need for health care services to include substance abuse services where appropriate, and that it is in the state’s best interest that such children be provided the services they need to enable them to become and remain independent of state care. In order to provide these services, the state’s delinquency system must have the ability to identify and provide appropriate intervention and treatment for children with personal or family-related substance abuse problems. It is therefore the purpose of the Legislature to provide authority for the state to contract with community substance abuse treatment providers for the development and operation of specialized support and overlay services for the delinquency system, which will be fully implemented and utilized as resources permit.
(3) JUVENILE JUSTICE AND DELINQUENCY PREVENTION.It is the policy of the state with respect to juvenile justice and delinquency prevention to first protect the public from acts of delinquency. In addition, it is the policy of the state to:
(a) Develop and implement effective methods of preventing and reducing acts of delinquency, with a focus on maintaining and strengthening the family as a whole so that children may remain in their homes or communities.
(b) Develop and implement effective programs to prevent delinquency, to divert children from the traditional juvenile justice system, to intervene at an early stage of delinquency, and to provide critically needed alternatives to institutionalization and deep-end commitment.
(c) Provide well-trained personnel, high-quality services, and cost-effective programs within the juvenile justice system.
(d) Increase the capacity of local governments and public and private agencies to conduct rehabilitative treatment programs and to provide research, evaluation, and training services in the field of juvenile delinquency prevention.
(4) DETENTION.
(a) The Legislature finds that there is a need for a secure placement for certain children alleged to have committed a delinquent act. The Legislature finds that detention should be used only when less restrictive interim placement alternatives prior to adjudication and disposition are not appropriate. The Legislature further finds that decisions to detain should be based in part on a prudent assessment of risk and be limited to situations where there is clear and convincing evidence that a child presents a risk of failing to appear or presents a substantial risk of inflicting bodily harm on others as evidenced by recent behavior; presents a history of committing a serious property offense prior to adjudication, disposition, or placement; has acted in direct or indirect contempt of court; or requests protection from imminent bodily harm.
(b) The Legislature intends that a juvenile found to have committed a delinquent act understands the consequences and the serious nature of such behavior. Therefore, the Legislature finds that secure detention is appropriate to provide punishment for children who pose a threat to public safety. The Legislature also finds that certain juveniles have committed a sufficient number of criminal acts, including acts involving violence to persons, to represent sufficient danger to the community to warrant sentencing and placement within the adult system. It is the intent of the Legislature to establish clear criteria in order to identify these juveniles and remove them from the juvenile justice system.
(5) SITING OF FACILITIES.
(a) The Legislature finds that timely siting and development of needed residential facilities for juvenile offenders is critical to the public safety of the citizens of this state and to the effective rehabilitation of juvenile offenders.
(b) It is the purpose of the Legislature to guarantee that such facilities are sited and developed within reasonable timeframes after they are legislatively authorized and appropriated.
(c) The Legislature further finds that such facilities must be located in areas of the state close to the home communities of the children they house in order to ensure the most effective rehabilitation efforts, postrelease supervision, and case management. The placement of facilities close to the home communities of the children they house is also intended to facilitate family involvement in the treatment process. Residential facilities shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property.
(d) It is the intent of the Legislature that all other departments and agencies of the state shall cooperate fully with the Department of Juvenile Justice to accomplish the siting of facilities for juvenile offenders.

The supervision, counseling, and rehabilitative treatment efforts of the juvenile justice system should avoid the inappropriate use of correctional programs and large institutions.

(6) PARENTAL, CUSTODIAL, AND GUARDIAN RESPONSIBILITIES.Parents, custodians, and guardians are deemed by the state to be responsible for providing their children with sufficient support, guidance, and supervision to deter their participation in delinquent acts. The state further recognizes that the ability of parents, custodians, and guardians to fulfill those responsibilities can be greatly impaired by economic, social, behavioral, emotional, and related problems. It is therefore the policy of the Legislature that it is the state’s responsibility to ensure that factors impeding the ability of caretakers to fulfill their responsibilities are identified through the delinquency intake process and that appropriate recommendations to address those problems are considered in any judicial or nonjudicial proceeding. Nonetheless, as it is also the intent of the Legislature to preserve and strengthen the child’s family ties, it is the policy of the Legislature that the emotional, legal, and financial responsibilities of the caretaker with regard to the care, custody, and support of the child continue while the child is in the physical or legal custody of the department.
(7) GENDER-SPECIFIC PROGRAMMING.
(a) The Legislature finds that the needs of children served by the juvenile justice system are gender-specific. A gender-specific approach is one in which programs, services, and treatments comprehensively address the unique developmental needs of a targeted gender group under the care of the department. Young women and men have different pathways to delinquency, display different patterns of offending, and respond differently to interventions, treatment, and services.
(b) Gender-specific interventions focus on the differences between young females’ and young males’ social roles and responsibilities, access to and use of resources, history of trauma, and reasons for interaction with the juvenile justice system. Gender-specific programs increase the effectiveness of programs by making interventions more appropriate to the specific needs of young women and men and ensuring that these programs do not unknowingly create, maintain, or reinforce gender roles or relations that may be damaging.
(8) TRAUMA-INFORMED CARE.The Legislature finds that the department should use trauma-informed care as an approach to treating children with histories of trauma. Trauma-informed care assists service providers in recognizing the symptoms of trauma and acknowledges the role trauma has played in the child’s life. Services for children should be based on an understanding of the vulnerabilities and triggers of trauma survivors that traditional service delivery approaches may exacerbate, so that these services and programs can be more supportive and avoid retraumatization. The department should use trauma-specific interventions that are designed to address the consequences of trauma in the child and to facilitate healing.
(9) FAMILY AND COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT.The Legislature finds that families and community support systems are critical to the success of children and to ensure they are nondelinquent. Therefore, when appropriate, children who can safely be held accountable when served and treated in their homes and communities should be diverted from more restrictive placements within the juvenile justice system. There should be an emphasis on strengthening the family and immersing the family members in their community support system. The department should develop customized plans that acknowledge the importance of family and community support systems. The customized plans should recognize a child’s individual needs, capitalize on their strengths, reduce their risks, and prepare them for a successful transition to, and unification with, their family and community support system. The child’s family must be considered in the department’s process of assessing the needs, services and treatment, and community connections of the children who are involved in the juvenile justice system or in danger of becoming involved in the system.
History.s. 2, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 2001-125; s. 1, ch. 2004-333; s. 3, ch. 2006-120; s. 1, ch. 2008-65; s. 167, ch. 2010-102; s. 1, ch. 2011-70; s. 2, ch. 2014-162.
985.03 Definitions.As used in this chapter, the term:
(1) “Abscond” means to hide, conceal, or absent oneself from the jurisdiction of the court or supervision of the department to avoid prosecution or supervision.
(2) “Addictions receiving facility” means a substance abuse service provider as defined in chapter 397.
(3) “Adjudicatory hearing” means a hearing for the court to determine whether or not the facts support the allegations stated in the petition, as is provided for under s. 985.35 in delinquency cases.
(4) “Adult” means any natural person other than a child.
(5) “Arbitration” means a process whereby a neutral third person or panel, called an arbitrator or an arbitration panel, considers the facts and arguments presented by the parties and renders a decision which may be binding or nonbinding.
(6) “Authorized agent” or “designee” of the department means a person or agency assigned or designated by the department to perform duties or exercise powers under this chapter and includes contract providers and their employees.
(7) “Child” or “juvenile” or “youth” means any person under the age of 18 or any person who is alleged to have committed a violation of law occurring prior to the time that person reached the age of 18 years.
(8) “Child in need of services” has the same meaning as provided in s. 984.03.
(9) “Child who has been found to have committed a delinquent act” means a child who, under this chapter, is found by a court to have committed a violation of law or to be in direct or indirect contempt of court, except that this definition does not include an act constituting contempt of court arising out of a dependency proceeding or a proceeding concerning a child or family in need of services.
(10) “Circuit” means any of the 20 judicial circuits as set forth in s. 26.021.
(11) “Comprehensive assessment” or “assessment” means the gathering of information for the evaluation of a juvenile offender’s or a child’s physical, psychological, educational, career and technical education, and social condition and family environment as they relate to the child’s need for rehabilitative and treatment services, including substance abuse treatment services, mental health services, developmental services, literacy services, medical services, family services, and other specialized services, as appropriate.
(12) “Conditional release” means the care, treatment, help, supervision, and provision of transition-to-adulthood services provided to a juvenile released from a residential commitment program which is intended to promote rehabilitation and prevent recidivism. The purpose of conditional release is to protect the public, reduce recidivism, increase responsible productive behavior, and provide for a successful transition of the youth from the department to his or her family. Conditional release includes, but is not limited to, nonresidential community-based programs.
(13) “Court” means the circuit court assigned to exercise jurisdiction under this chapter, unless otherwise expressly stated.
(14) “Day treatment” means a nonresidential, community-based program designed to provide therapeutic intervention to youth who are served by the department, placed on probation or conditional release, or committed to the minimum-risk nonresidential level. A day treatment program may provide educational and career and technical education services and shall provide case management services; individual, group, and family counseling; training designed to address delinquency risk factors; and monitoring of a youth’s compliance with, and facilitation of a youth’s completion of, sanctions if ordered by the court. Program types may include, but are not limited to, career programs, marine programs, juvenile justice alternative schools, training and rehabilitation programs, and gender-specific programs.
(15)(a) “Delinquency program” means any intake, probation, or similar program; regional detention center or facility; or community-based program, whether owned and operated by or contracted by the department, or institution owned and operated by or contracted by the department, which provides intake, supervision, or custody and care of children who are alleged to be or who have been found to be delinquent under this chapter.
(b) “Delinquency program staff” means supervisory and direct care staff of a delinquency program as well as support staff who have direct contact with children in a delinquency program.
(16) “Department” means the Department of Juvenile Justice.
(17) “Designated facility” or “designated treatment facility” means any facility designated by the department to provide treatment to juvenile offenders.
(18) “Detention care” means the temporary care of a child in secure or nonsecure detention, pending a court adjudication or disposition or execution of a court order. There are two types of detention care, as follows:
(a) “Secure detention” means temporary custody of the child while the child is under the physical restriction of a secure detention center or facility pending adjudication, disposition, or placement.
(b) “Nonsecure detention” means temporary, nonsecure custody of the child while the child is released to the custody of the parent, guardian, or custodian in a physically nonrestrictive environment under the supervision of the department staff pending adjudication, disposition, or placement. Forms of nonsecure detention include, but are not limited to, home detention, electronic monitoring, day reporting centers, evening reporting centers, and nonsecure shelters. Nonsecure detention may include other requirements imposed by the court.
(19) “Detention center or facility” means a facility used pending court adjudication or disposition or execution of court order for the temporary care of a child alleged or found to have committed a violation of law. A detention center or facility may provide secure custody. A facility used for the commitment of adjudicated delinquents shall not be considered a detention center or facility.
(20) “Detention hearing” means a hearing for the court to determine if a child should be placed in temporary custody, as provided for under part V in delinquency cases.
(21) “Disposition hearing” means a hearing in which the court determines the most appropriate dispositional services in the least restrictive available setting provided for under part VII, in delinquency cases.
(22) “Family” means a collective of persons, consisting of a child and a parent, guardian, adult custodian, or adult relative, in which:
(a) The persons reside in the same house or living unit; or
(b) The parent, guardian, adult custodian, or adult relative has a legal responsibility by blood, marriage, or court order to support or care for the child.
(23) “Family in need of services” has the same meaning as provided in s. 984.03.
(24) “Intake” means the initial acceptance and screening by the department or juvenile assessment center personnel of a complaint or a law enforcement report or probable cause affidavit of delinquency to determine the recommendation to be taken in the best interests of the child, the family, and the community. The emphasis of intake is on diversion and the least restrictive available services. Consequently, intake includes such alternatives as:
(a) The disposition of the complaint, report, or probable cause affidavit without court or public agency action or judicial handling when appropriate.
(b) The referral of the child to another public or private agency when appropriate.
(c) The recommendation by the department of judicial handling when appropriate and warranted.
(25) “Judge” means the circuit judge exercising jurisdiction pursuant to this chapter.
(26) “Juvenile justice continuum” includes, but is not limited to, prevention programs and services designed for the purpose of preventing or reducing delinquent acts, including criminal activity by criminal gangs, and juvenile arrests, as well as programs and services targeted at children who have committed delinquent acts, and children who have previously been committed to residential treatment programs for delinquents. The term includes children-in-need-of-services and families-in-need-of-services programs under chapter 984; conditional release; substance abuse and mental health programs; educational and career programs; recreational programs; community services programs; community service work programs; mother-infant programs; and alternative dispute resolution programs serving children at risk of delinquency and their families, whether offered or delivered by state or local governmental entities, public or private for-profit or not-for-profit organizations, or religious or charitable organizations.
(27) “Juvenile probation officer” means the authorized agent of the department who performs the intake, case management, or supervision functions.
(28) “Legal custody or guardian” means a legal status created by court order or letter of guardianship which vests in a custodian of the person or guardian, whether an agency or an individual, the right to have physical custody of the child and the right and duty to protect, train, and discipline the child and to provide him or her with food, shelter, education, and ordinary medical, dental, psychiatric, and psychological care.
(29) “Licensed child-caring agency” means a person, society, association, or agency licensed by the Department of Children and Families to care for, receive, and board children.
(30) “Licensed health care professional” means a physician licensed under chapter 458, an osteopathic physician licensed under chapter 459, a nurse licensed under part I of chapter 464, a physician assistant licensed under chapter 458 or chapter 459, or a dentist licensed under chapter 466.
(31) “Likely to injure oneself” means that, as evidenced by violent or other actively self-destructive behavior, it is more likely than not that within a 24-hour period the child will attempt to commit suicide or inflict serious bodily harm on himself or herself.
(32) “Likely to injure others” means that it is more likely than not that within a 24-hour period the child will inflict serious and unjustified bodily harm on another person.
(33) “Mediation” means a process whereby a neutral third person called a mediator acts to encourage and facilitate the resolution of a dispute between two or more parties. It is an informal and nonadversarial process with the objective of helping the disputing parties reach a mutually acceptable and voluntary agreement. In mediation, decisionmaking authority rests with the parties. The role of the mediator includes, but is not limited to, assisting the parties in identifying issues, fostering joint problem solving, and exploring settlement alternatives.
(34) “Mother-infant program” means a residential program designed to serve the needs of juvenile mothers or expectant juvenile mothers who are committed as delinquents, which is operated or contracted by the department. A mother-infant program facility must be licensed as a child care facility under s. 402.308 and must provide the services and support necessary to enable each juvenile mother committed to the facility to provide for the needs of her infants who, upon agreement of the mother, may accompany her in the program.
(35) “Necessary medical treatment” means care which is necessary within a reasonable degree of medical certainty to prevent the deterioration of a child’s condition or to alleviate immediate pain of a child.
(36) “Next of kin” means an adult relative of a child who is the child’s brother, sister, grandparent, aunt, uncle, or first cousin.
(37) “Ordinary medical care” means medical procedures that are administered or performed on a routine basis and include, but are not limited to, inoculations, physical examinations, remedial treatment for minor illnesses and injuries, preventive services, medication management, chronic disease detection and treatment, and other medical procedures that are administered or performed on a routine basis and do not involve hospitalization, surgery, the use of general anesthesia, or the provision of psychotropic medications.
(38) “Parent” means a woman who gives birth to a child and a man whose consent to the adoption of the child would be required under s. 63.062(1). If a child has been legally adopted, the term “parent” means the adoptive mother or father of the child. The term does not include an individual whose parental relationship to the child has been legally terminated, or an alleged or prospective parent, unless the parental status falls within the terms of either s. 39.503(1) or s. 63.062(1).
(39) “Preliminary screening” means the gathering of preliminary information to be used in determining a child’s need for further evaluation or assessment or for referral for other substance abuse services through means such as psychosocial interviews; urine and breathalyzer screenings; and reviews of available educational, delinquency, and dependency records of the child.
(40) “Prevention” means programs, strategies, initiatives, and networks designed to keep children from making initial or further contact with the juvenile justice system.
(41) “Probation” means the legal status of probation created by law and court order in cases involving a child who has been found to have committed a delinquent act. Probation is an individualized program in which the freedom of the child is limited and the child is restricted to noninstitutional quarters or restricted to the child’s home in lieu of commitment to the custody of the department. Youth on probation may be assessed and classified for placement in day-treatment probation programs designed for youth who represent a minimum risk to themselves and public safety and do not require placement and services in a residential setting.
(42) “Relative” means a grandparent, great-grandparent, sibling, first cousin, aunt, uncle, great-aunt, great-uncle, niece, or nephew, whether related by the whole or half blood, by affinity, or by adoption. The term does not include a stepparent.
(43) “Respite” means a placement that is available for the care, custody, and placement of a youth charged with domestic violence as an alternative to secure detention or for placement of a youth when a shelter bed for a child in need of services or a family in need of services is unavailable.
(44) “Restrictiveness level” means the level of programming and security provided by programs that service the supervision, custody, care, and treatment needs of committed children. Sections 985.601(10) and 985.721 apply to children placed in programs at any residential commitment level. The restrictiveness levels of commitment are as follows:
(a) Minimum-risk nonresidential.Programs or program models at this commitment level work with youth who remain in the community and participate at least 5 days per week in a day treatment program. Youth assessed and classified for programs at this commitment level represent a minimum risk to themselves and public safety and do not require placement and services in residential settings. Youth in this level have full access to, and reside in, the community. Youth who have been found to have committed delinquent acts that involve firearms, that are sexual offenses, or that would be life felonies or first degree felonies if committed by an adult may not be committed to a program at this level.
(b) Nonsecure residential.Programs or program models at this commitment level are residential but may allow youth to have supervised access to the community. Facilities at this commitment level are either environmentally secure, staff secure, or are hardware-secure with walls, fencing, or locking doors. Residential facilities at this commitment level shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols, and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide 24-hour awake supervision, custody, care, and treatment of residents. Youth assessed and classified for placement in programs at this commitment level represent a low or moderate risk to public safety and require close supervision. The staff at a facility at this commitment level may seclude a child who is a physical threat to himself or herself or others. Mechanical restraint may also be used when necessary.
(c) High-risk residential.Programs or program models at this commitment level are residential and do not allow youth to have access to the community, except that temporary release providing community access for up to 72 continuous hours may be approved by a court for a youth who has made successful progress in his or her program in order for the youth to attend a family emergency or, during the final 60 days of his or her placement, to visit his or her home, enroll in school or a career and technical education program, complete a job interview, or participate in a community service project. High-risk residential facilities are hardware-secure with perimeter fencing and locking doors. Residential facilities at this commitment level shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols, and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide 24-hour awake supervision, custody, care, and treatment of residents. Youth assessed and classified for this level of placement require close supervision in a structured residential setting. Placement in programs at this level is prompted by a concern for public safety that outweighs placement in programs at lower commitment levels. The staff at a facility at this commitment level may seclude a child who is a physical threat to himself or herself or others. Mechanical restraint may also be used when necessary. The facility may provide for single cell occupancy, except that youth may be housed together during prerelease transition.
(d) Maximum-risk residential.Programs or program models at this commitment level include juvenile correctional facilities and juvenile prisons. The programs at this commitment level are long-term residential and do not allow youth to have access to the community. Facilities at this commitment level are maximum-custody, hardware-secure with perimeter security fencing and locking doors. Residential facilities at this commitment level shall have no more than 90 beds each, including campus-style programs, unless those campus-style programs include more than one treatment program using different treatment protocols, and have facilities that coexist separately in distinct locations on the same property. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide 24-hour awake supervision, custody, care, and treatment of residents. The staff at a facility at this commitment level may seclude a child who is a physical threat to himself or herself or others. Mechanical restraint may also be used when necessary. Facilities at this commitment level shall provide for single cell occupancy, except that youth may be housed together during prerelease transition. Youth assessed and classified for this level of placement require close supervision in a maximum security residential setting. Placement in a program at this level is prompted by a demonstrated need to protect the public.
(45) “Secure detention center or facility” means a physically restricting facility for the temporary care of children pending adjudication, disposition, or placement.
(46) “Shelter” means a place for the temporary care of a child who is alleged to be or who has been found to be delinquent.
(47) “Substance abuse” means using, without medical reason, any psychoactive or mood-altering drug, including alcohol, in such a manner as to induce impairment resulting in dysfunctional social behavior.
(48) “Taken into custody” means the status of a child immediately when temporary physical control over the child is attained by a person authorized by law, pending the child’s release, detention, placement, or other disposition as authorized by law.
(49) “Temporary legal custody” means the relationship that a juvenile court creates between a child and an adult relative of the child, adult nonrelative approved by the court, or other person until a more permanent arrangement is ordered. Temporary legal custody confers upon the custodian the right to have temporary physical custody of the child and the right and duty to protect, train, and discipline the child and to provide the child with food, shelter, and education, and ordinary medical, dental, psychiatric, and psychological care, unless these rights and duties are otherwise enlarged or limited by the court order establishing the temporary legal custody relationship.
(50) “Temporary release” means the terms and conditions under which a child is temporarily released from a residential commitment facility or allowed home visits. If the temporary release is from a nonsecure residential facility, a high-risk residential facility, or a maximum-risk residential facility, the terms and conditions of the temporary release must be approved by the child, the court, and the facility.
(51) “Transition-to-adulthood services” means services that are provided for youth in the custody of the department or under the supervision of the department and that have the objective of instilling the knowledge, skills, and aptitudes essential to a socially integrated, self-supporting adult life. The services may include, but are not limited to:
(a) Assessment of the youth’s ability and readiness for adult life.
(b) A plan for the youth to acquire the knowledge, information, and counseling necessary to make a successful transition to adulthood.
(c) Services that have proven effective toward achieving the transition to adulthood.
(52) “Trauma-informed care” means services that are provided to children with a history of trauma, recognizing the symptoms of trauma and acknowledging the role that trauma has played in the child’s life. Trauma may include, but is not limited to, community and school violence, physical or sexual abuse, neglect, medical difficulties, and domestic violence.
(53) “Violation of law” or “delinquent act” means a violation of any law of this state, the United States, or any other state which is a misdemeanor or a felony or a violation of a county or municipal ordinance which would be punishable by incarceration if the violation were committed by an adult.
(54) “Waiver hearing” means a hearing provided for under s. 985.556(4).
History.s. 4, ch. 97-234; s. 3, ch. 97-238; s. 1, ch. 97-276; s. 13, ch. 98-49; s. 7, ch. 98-207; s. 78, ch. 98-280; s. 169, ch. 98-403; s. 58, ch. 99-7; s. 14, ch. 99-201; s. 9, ch. 99-284; s. 18, ch. 2000-135; s. 150, ch. 2000-318; s. 35, ch. 2001-3; s. 14, ch. 2001-125; s. 119, ch. 2002-1; s. 1050, ch. 2002-387; s. 67, ch. 2004-357; s. 1, ch. 2005-263; ss. 4, 56, 57, 59, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2008-65; s. 30, ch. 2008-238; s. 1, ch. 2010-123; ss. 2, 3, ch. 2011-70; s. 1, ch. 2011-236; s. 2, ch. 2012-56; s. 117, ch. 2013-15; s. 343, ch. 2014-19; s. 3, ch. 2014-162.
985.0301 Jurisdiction.
(1) The circuit court has exclusive original jurisdiction of proceedings in which a child is alleged to have committed:
(a) A delinquent act or violation of law.
(b) A noncriminal violation that has been assigned to juvenile court by law.
(2) The jurisdiction of the court shall attach to the child and the case when the summons is served upon the child and a parent or legal or actual custodian or guardian of the child, or when the child is taken into custody with or without service of summons and before or after the filing of a petition, whichever first occurs, and thereafter the court may control the child and the case in accordance with this chapter.
(3) During the prosecution of any violation of law against any person who has been presumed to be an adult, if it is shown that the person was a child at the time the offense was committed and that the person does not meet the criteria for prosecution and sentencing as an adult, the court shall immediately transfer the case, together with the physical custody of the person and all physical evidence, papers, documents, and testimony, original and duplicate, connected therewith, to the appropriate court for proceedings under this chapter. The circuit court is exclusively authorized to assume jurisdiction over any juvenile offender who is arrested and charged with violating a federal law or a law of the District of Columbia, who is found or is living or domiciled in a county in which the circuit court is established, and who is surrendered to the circuit court as provided in 18 U.S.C. s. 5001.
(4)(a) Petitions alleging delinquency shall be filed in the county where the delinquent act or violation of law occurred. The circuit court for that county may transfer the case to the circuit court of the circuit in which the child resides or will reside at the time of detention or placement for dispositional purposes. A child who has been detained may be transferred to the detention center or facility in the circuit in which the child resides or will reside at the time of detention.
(b) The jurisdiction to be exercised by the court when a child is taken into custody before the filing of a petition under subsection (2) shall be exercised by the circuit court for the county in which the child is taken into custody, which court shall have personal jurisdiction of the child and the child’s parent or legal guardian. Upon the filing of a petition in the appropriate circuit court, the court that is exercising initial jurisdiction of the person of the child shall, if the child has been detained, immediately order the child to be transferred to the detention center or facility or other placement as ordered by the court having subject matter jurisdiction of the case.
(5)(a) Notwithstanding s. 743.07, and except as provided in paragraph (b), when the jurisdiction of any child who is alleged to have committed a delinquent act or violation of law is obtained, the court shall retain jurisdiction to dispose of a case, unless relinquished by its order, until the child reaches 19 years of age, with the same power over the child which the court had before the child became an adult.
(b) The court shall retain jurisdiction, unless relinquished by its own order:
1. Over a child on probation until the child reaches 19 years of age.
2. Over a child committed to the department until the child reaches 21 years of age, specifically for the purpose of allowing the child to complete the commitment program, including conditional release supervision.
(c) The court shall retain jurisdiction over a juvenile sexual offender, as defined in s. 985.475, who has been placed on community-based treatment alternative with supervision or who has been placed in a program or facility for juvenile sexual offenders, pursuant to s. 985.48, until the juvenile sexual offender reaches 21 years of age, specifically for the purpose of allowing the juvenile to complete the program.
(d) The court may retain jurisdiction over a child and the child’s parent or legal guardian whom the court has ordered to pay restitution until the restitution order is satisfied. To retain jurisdiction, the court shall enter a restitution order, which is separate from any disposition or order of commitment, on or prior to the date that the court’s jurisdiction would cease under this section. The contents of the restitution order shall be limited to the child’s name and address, the name and address of the parent or legal guardian, the name and address of the payee, the case number, the date and amount of restitution ordered, any amount of restitution paid, the amount of restitution due and owing, and a notation that costs, interest, penalties, and attorney fees may also be due and owing. The terms of the restitution order are subject to s. 775.089(5).
(e) This subsection does not prevent the exercise of jurisdiction by any court having jurisdiction of the child if the child, after becoming an adult, commits a violation of law.
(6) The court may at any time enter an order ending its jurisdiction over any child.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 12, ch. 92-287; s. 2, ch. 93-37; ss. 19, 39, ch. 94-209; s. 21, ch. 94-342; s. 2, ch. 95-160; ss. 9, 27, ch. 97-238; s. 33, ch. 99-284; ss. 5, 11, ch. 2000-134; s. 36, ch. 2001-64; s. 65, ch. 2005-236; s. 19, ch. 2005-263; s. 5, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2011-54; s. 10, ch. 2011-70; s. 3, ch. 2011-236; s. 90, ch. 2012-5; s. 6, ch. 2012-56; s. 4, ch. 2014-162; s. 104, ch. 2015-2; s. 4, ch. 2015-133.
Note.Subsections (1), (3)-(5) former s. 39.022; s. 985.201. Subsection (2) former s. 39.049(7); s. 985.219(8).
985.032 Legal representation for delinquency cases.
(1) For cases arising under this chapter, the state attorney shall represent the state.
(2) A juvenile who has been adjudicated delinquent or has adjudication of delinquency withheld shall be assessed costs of prosecution as provided in s. 938.27.
History.s. 2, ch. 92-170; s. 13, ch. 94-209; s. 1334, ch. 95-147; s. 2, ch. 97-101; s. 10, ch. 97-238; s. 6, ch. 2006-120; s. 3, ch. 2013-112.
Note.Former s. 39.014; s. 985.202.
985.033 Right to counsel.
(1) A child is entitled to representation by legal counsel at all stages of any delinquency court proceedings under this chapter. If the child and the parents or other legal guardian are indigent and unable to employ counsel for the child, the court shall appoint counsel under s. 27.52. Determination of indigence and costs of representation shall be as provided by ss. 27.52 and 938.29. Legal counsel representing a child who exercises the right to counsel shall be allowed to provide advice and counsel to the child at any time subsequent to the child’s arrest, including prior to a detention hearing while in secure detention care. A child shall be represented by legal counsel at all stages of all court proceedings unless the right to counsel is freely, knowingly, and intelligently waived by the child. If the child appears without counsel, the court shall advise the child of his or her rights with respect to representation of court-appointed counsel.
(2) This section does not apply to transfer proceedings under s. 985.441(4), unless the court sets a hearing to review the transfer.
(3) If the parents or legal guardian of an indigent child are not indigent but refuse to employ counsel, the court shall appoint counsel pursuant to s. 27.52 to represent the child at the detention hearing and until counsel is provided. Costs of representation are hereby imposed as provided by ss. 27.52 and 938.29. Thereafter, the court shall not appoint counsel for an indigent child with nonindigent parents or legal guardian but shall order the parents or legal guardian to obtain private counsel. A parent or legal guardian of an indigent child who has been ordered to obtain private counsel for the child and who willfully fails to follow the court order shall be punished by the court in civil contempt proceedings.
(4) An indigent child with nonindigent parents or legal guardian may have counsel appointed pursuant to s. 27.52 if the parents or legal guardian have willfully refused to obey the court order to obtain counsel for the child and have been punished by civil contempt and then still have willfully refused to obey the court order. Costs of representation are hereby imposed as provided by ss. 27.52 and 938.29.
(5) Notwithstanding any provision of this section or any other law to the contrary, if a child is transferred for criminal prosecution pursuant to this chapter, a nonindigent or indigent-but-able-to-contribute parent or legal guardian of the child pursuant to s. 27.52 is liable for necessary legal fees and costs incident to the criminal prosecution of the child as an adult.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 220, ch. 95-147; s. 4, ch. 96-232; s. 11, ch. 97-238; s. 30, ch. 97-271; s. 129, ch. 99-3; s. 139, ch. 2003-402; s. 165, ch. 2004-5; s. 90, ch. 2004-265; s. 7, ch. 2006-120; s. 3, ch. 2011-54.
Note.Former s. 39.041; s. 985.203.
985.035 Opening hearings.
(1) All hearings, except as provided in this section, must be open to the public, and no person may be excluded except on special order of the court. The court, in its discretion, may close any hearing to the public when the public interest and the welfare of the child are best served by so doing. Hearings involving more than one child may be held simultaneously when the children were involved in the same transactions.
(2) Except as provided in subsection (1), nothing in this section shall prohibit the publication of proceedings in a hearing.
History.s. 13, ch. 97-238; s. 8, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.205.
985.036 Rights of victims; juvenile proceedings.
(1) Nothing in this chapter prohibits:
(a) The victim of the offense;
(b) The victim’s parent or guardian if the victim is a minor;
(c) The lawful representative of the victim or of the victim’s parent or guardian if the victim is a minor; or
(d) The next of kin if the victim is a homicide victim,

from the right to be informed of, to be present during, and to be heard when relevant at, all crucial stages of the proceedings involving the juvenile offender, to the extent that such rights do not interfere with the constitutional rights of the juvenile offender. A person enumerated in this section may not reveal to any outside party any confidential information obtained under this subsection regarding a case involving a juvenile offense, except as is reasonably necessary to pursue legal remedies.

(2) A law enforcement agency may release a copy of the juvenile offense report to the victim of the offense. However, information gained by the victim under this chapter, including the next of kin of a homicide victim, regarding any case handled in juvenile court must not be revealed to any outside party, except as is reasonably necessary in pursuit of legal remedies.
History.s. 1, ch. 92-66; s. 14, ch. 97-238; s. 9, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.0515; s. 985.206.
985.037 Punishment for contempt of court; alternative sanctions.
(1) CONTEMPT OF COURT; LEGISLATIVE INTENT.The court may punish any child for contempt for interfering with the court or with court administration, or for violating any provision of this chapter or order of the court relative thereto. It is the intent of the Legislature that the court restrict and limit the use of contempt powers with respect to commitment of a child to a secure facility. A child who commits direct contempt of court or indirect contempt of a valid court order may be taken into custody and ordered to serve an alternative sanction or placed in a secure facility, as authorized in this section, by order of the court.
(2) PLACEMENT IN A SECURE DETENTION FACILITY.A child may be placed in a secure detention facility for purposes of punishment for contempt of court if alternative sanctions are unavailable or inappropriate, or if the child has already been ordered to serve an alternative sanction but failed to comply with the sanction. A delinquent child who has been held in direct or indirect contempt may be placed in a secure detention facility not to exceed 5 days for a first offense and not to exceed 15 days for a second or subsequent offense.
(3) ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS.Each judicial circuit shall have an alternative sanctions coordinator who shall serve under the chief administrative judge of the juvenile division of the circuit court, and who shall coordinate and maintain a spectrum of contempt sanction alternatives in conjunction with the circuit plan implemented in accordance with s. 790.22(4)(c). Upon determining that a child has committed direct contempt of court or indirect contempt of a valid court order, the court may immediately request the alternative sanctions coordinator to recommend the most appropriate available alternative sanction and shall order the child to perform up to 50 hours of community-service manual labor or a similar alternative sanction, unless an alternative sanction is unavailable or inappropriate, or unless the child has failed to comply with a prior alternative sanction. Alternative contempt sanctions may be provided by local industry or by any nonprofit organization or any public or private business or service entity that has entered into a contract with the Department of Juvenile Justice to act as an agent of the state to provide voluntary supervision of children on behalf of the state in exchange for the manual labor of children and limited immunity in accordance with s. 768.28(11).
(4) CONTEMPT OF COURT SANCTIONS; PROCEDURE AND DUE PROCESS.
(a) If a child is charged with direct contempt of court, including traffic court, the court may impose an authorized sanction immediately. The court must hold a hearing to determine if the child committed direct contempt. Due process must be afforded to the child during this hearing.
(b) If a child is charged with indirect contempt of court, the court must hold a hearing within 24 hours to determine whether the child committed indirect contempt of a valid court order. At the hearing, the following due process rights must be provided to the child:
1. Right to a copy of the order to show cause alleging facts supporting the contempt charge.
2. Right to an explanation of the nature and the consequences of the proceedings.
3. Right to legal counsel and the right to have legal counsel appointed by the court if the juvenile is indigent, under s. 985.033.
4. Right to confront witnesses.
5. Right to present witnesses.
6. Right to have a transcript or record of the proceeding.
7. Right to appeal to an appropriate court.

The child’s parent or guardian may address the court regarding the due process rights of the child. Upon motion by the defense attorney or state attorney, the court shall review the placement of the child to determine whether it is appropriate for the child to remain in the facility.

(c) The court may not order that a child be placed in a secure detention facility for punishment for contempt unless the court determines that an alternative sanction is inappropriate or unavailable or that the child was initially ordered to an alternative sanction and did not comply with the alternative sanction. The court is encouraged to order a child to perform community service, up to the maximum number of hours, where appropriate before ordering that the child be placed in a secure detention facility as punishment for contempt of court.
(d) In addition to any other sanction imposed under this section, the court may direct the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles to withhold issuance of, or suspend, a child’s driver license or driving privilege. The court may order that a child’s driver license or driving privilege be withheld or suspended for up to 1 year for a first offense of contempt and up to 2 years for a second or subsequent offense. If the child’s driver license or driving privilege is suspended or revoked for any reason at the time the sanction for contempt is imposed, the court shall extend the period of suspension or revocation by the additional period ordered under this paragraph. If the child’s driver license is being withheld at the time the sanction for contempt is imposed, the period of suspension or revocation ordered under this paragraph shall begin on the date on which the child is otherwise eligible to drive.
(5) ALTERNATIVE SANCTIONS COORDINATOR.There is created the position of alternative sanctions coordinator within each judicial circuit, pursuant to subsection (3). Each alternative sanctions coordinator shall serve under the direction of the chief administrative judge of the juvenile division as directed by the chief judge of the circuit. The alternative sanctions coordinator shall act as the liaison between the judiciary, local department officials, district school board employees, and local law enforcement agencies. The alternative sanctions coordinator shall coordinate within the circuit community-based alternative sanctions, including nonsecure detention programs, community service projects, and other juvenile sanctions, in conjunction with the circuit plan implemented in accordance with s. 790.22(4)(c).
History.s. 14, ch. 94-209; s. 4, ch. 95-267; s. 24, ch. 97-238; s. 1, ch. 97-281; s. 15, ch. 98-207; s. 10, ch. 2000-134; s. 25, ch. 2000-135; s. 10, ch. 2006-120; s. 5, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.0145; s. 985.216.
985.039 Cost of supervision; cost of care.
(1) Except as provided in subsection (3) or subsection (4):
(a) When any child is placed into nonsecure detention, probation, or other supervision status with the department, or is committed to the minimum-risk nonresidential restrictiveness level, the court shall order the parent of such child to pay to the department a fee for the cost of the supervision of such child in the amount of $1 per day for each day that the child is in such status.
(b) When any child is placed into secure detention or placed on committed status and the temporary legal custody of such child is placed with the department, the court shall order the parent of such child to pay to the department a fee for the cost of the care of such child in the amount of $5 per day for each day that the child is in the temporary legal custody of the department.
(2) The parent of any child who has been placed under the supervision or care of the department shall provide to the department his or her name, address, social security number, date of birth, driver license number or identification card number, and sufficient financial information so as to assist the court in determining the parent’s ability to pay any fee associated with the cost of the child’s supervision or care. If the parent refuses to provide the department with the information required by this subsection, the court shall order the parent to provide such information. The failure of the parent to comply with such order of the court constitutes contempt of court, and the court may punish the parent accordingly.
(3) At the time of any detention or disposition hearing, the court shall receive the information described in subsection (2), as well as any other verbal or written information offered as to the ability of the parent of a child who is being placed under the supervision or care of the department to pay any fee imposed pursuant to this section and whether the payment of such fee will create a significant financial hardship. The court may apportion the obligation for the fee to each parent in a manner it deems appropriate; however, the total amount of the daily fee may not exceed the amounts specified in this section. Any finding made by the court as to the ability of the parent to pay such fee, including any finding of indigency or significant financial hardship, shall be in writing and shall contain a detailed description of the facts supporting such finding. If the court makes a finding of indigency and significant financial hardship, the court shall waive the fee or reduce it to an amount deemed appropriate.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (3), the court may reduce or waive the fee as to each parent if the court makes a finding on the record that the parent was the victim of the delinquent act or violation of law for which the child has been placed under the supervision or care of the department and that the parent is cooperating or has cooperated with the investigation of the offense.
(5) The court shall order the payment of any fees required in this section as part of the detention or disposition order. Such order must include specific written findings as to what fees are ordered, reduced, or waived. If the court fails to enter an order as required by this section, the parent is deemed to have an obligation to pay to the department a fee in the amount of $1 per day for each day that the child is under the supervision of the department and $5 per day for each day that the child remains in the care of the department.
(6) Notwithstanding subsection (1), with respect to a child who reaches the age of 18 prior to the detention or disposition hearing, the court may elect to direct an order required by this section to such child, rather than to the child’s parent. With regard to a child who reaches 18 while under the supervision or care of the department, the court may, upon proper motion of any party, hold a hearing as to whether any party should be further obligated to pay any fee associated with cost of the supervision or care of such child. If the court does not enter an order under this subsection, it shall be presumed that the court intended for the parent to pay or to continue to pay the fees specified in this section. Any order entered pursuant to this subsection must include specific findings as to what fees are ordered, reduced, or waived as to the child.
(7) With respect to a child who has been placed under the supervision or care of the department and whose parent receives public assistance for any portion of such child’s care, the department must seek a federal waiver to garnish or otherwise order the payment of a portion of the public assistance relating to such child, in an amount not to exceed the amount of the parent’s obligation, in order to offset the costs to the department associated with providing supervision or care of such child.
(8) If any order entered pursuant to this section affects the guardianship of an estate, a certified copy of such order shall be delivered to the judge having jurisdiction over the guardianship of the estate.
(9) The department may employ a collection agency for the purpose of receiving, collecting, and managing the payment of any fees ordered pursuant to this section that have gone delinquent or unpaid for 90 days or more. The collection agency must be registered and in good standing under chapter 559. The department may pay for the services of the collection agency from available authorized funds or from funds generated by any collections under this subsection. Alternatively, the department may authorize the collection agency to withhold a specified amount of any fee collected as payment for its services.
(10) The department or the collection agency shall provide to the payor documentation of the payment of any fee paid pursuant to this section. Except as provided in subsection (9), all payments received by the department or the collection agency pursuant to this section shall be deposited in the department’s Grants and Donations Trust Fund.
(11) Under no circumstance shall the court or the department extend the child’s length of stay in the department’s supervision or care solely for the purpose of collecting the fees specified in this section.
(12) No parent or child shall be liable for any fee provided in this section unless:
(a) The child is adjudicated delinquent, or has adjudication of delinquency withheld, for the offense that gave rise to the supervision or care; or
(b) The child is found to have violated an order of the court, including any order of supervision or care, and the costs are associated with the violation of such order.

If any funds are paid for the supervision or care of a child who is determined not to meet the criteria specified in paragraph (a) or paragraph (b), such funds shall be refunded to the payor forthwith.

(13) For purposes of this section, “parent” means any person who meets the definition of “parent” or “legal custody or guardian” in s. 985.03.
History.s. 1, ch. 2004-241; s. 7, ch. 2005-263; s. 11, ch. 2006-120; s. 6, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.2311.
PART II
RECORDS AND INFORMATION
985.04 Oaths; records; confidential information.
985.045 Court records.
985.046 Statewide information-sharing system; interagency workgroup.
985.047 Information systems.
985.04 Oaths; records; confidential information.
(1)(a) Except as provided in subsections (2), (3), (6), and (7) and s. 943.053, all information obtained under this chapter in the discharge of official duty by any judge, any employee of the court, any authorized agent of the department, the Florida Commission on Offender Review, the Department of Corrections, the juvenile justice circuit boards, any law enforcement agent, or any licensed professional or licensed community agency representative participating in the assessment or treatment of a juvenile is confidential and exempt from s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution. This exemption applies to information obtained before, on, or after the effective date of this exemption.
(b) Such confidential and exempt information may be disclosed only to the authorized personnel of the court, the department and its designees, the Department of Corrections, the Florida Commission on Offender Review, law enforcement agents, school superintendents and their designees, any licensed professional or licensed community agency representative participating in the assessment or treatment of a juvenile, and others entitled under this chapter to receive that information, or upon order of the court.
(c) Within each county, the sheriff, the chiefs of police, the district school superintendent, and the department shall enter into an interagency agreement for the purpose of sharing information about juvenile offenders among all parties. The agreement must specify the conditions under which summary criminal history information is to be made available to appropriate school personnel, and the conditions under which school records are to be made available to appropriate department personnel. Such agreement shall require notification to any classroom teacher of assignment to the teacher’s classroom of a juvenile who has been placed in a probation or commitment program for a felony offense. The agencies entering into such agreement must comply with s. 943.0525, and must maintain the confidentiality of information that is otherwise exempt from s. 119.07(1), as provided by law.
(2)(a)1. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, the name, photograph, address, and crime or arrest report of a child:
a. Taken into custody by a law enforcement officer for a violation of law which, if committed by an adult, would be a felony;
b. Charged with a violation of law which, if committed by an adult, would be a felony;
c. Found to have committed an offense which, if committed by an adult, would be a felony; or
d. Transferred to adult court pursuant to part X of this chapter,

are not considered confidential and exempt from s. 119.07(1) solely because of the child’s age.

2. A public records custodian may choose not to electronically publish on the custodian’s website the arrest or booking photographs of a child which are not confidential and exempt under this section or otherwise restricted from publication by law; however, this subparagraph does not restrict public access to records as provided by s. 119.07.
(b) This subsection is subject to the Open Government Sunset Review Act in accordance with s. 119.15 and shall stand repealed on October 2, 2021, unless reviewed and saved from repeal through reenactment by the Legislature.
(3) A law enforcement agency may release a copy of the juvenile offense report to the victim of the offense. However, information gained by the victim under this chapter, including the next of kin of a homicide victim, regarding any case handled in juvenile court, must not be revealed to any outside party, except as is reasonably necessary in pursuit of legal remedies.
(4)(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, when a child of any age is taken into custody by a law enforcement officer for an offense that would have been a felony if committed by an adult, or a crime of violence, the law enforcement agency must notify the superintendent of schools that the child is alleged to have committed the delinquent act.
(b) Notwithstanding paragraph (a) or any other provision of this section, when a child of any age is formally charged by a state attorney with a felony or a delinquent act that would be a felony if committed by an adult, the state attorney shall notify the superintendent of the child’s school that the child has been charged with such felony or delinquent act. The information obtained by the superintendent of schools under this section must be released within 48 hours after receipt to appropriate school personnel, including the principal of the school of the child and the director of transportation. The principal must immediately notify the child’s immediate classroom teachers, the child’s assigned bus driver, and any other school personnel whose duties include direct supervision of the child. Upon notification, the principal is authorized to begin disciplinary actions under s. 1006.09(1)-(4).
(c) The superintendent must notify the other school personnel whose duties include direct supervision of the child of the disposition of the charges against the child.
(d) The department shall disclose to the school superintendent the presence of any child in the care and custody or under the jurisdiction or supervision of the department who has a known history of criminal sexual behavior with other juveniles; is alleged to have committed juvenile sexual abuse as defined in s. 39.01; or has pled guilty or nolo contendere to, or has been found to have committed, a violation of chapter 794, chapter 796, chapter 800, s. 827.071, or s. 847.0133, regardless of adjudication. Any employee of a district school board who knowingly and willfully discloses such information to an unauthorized person commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(5) Authorized agents of the department may administer oaths and affirmations.
(6)(a) Records maintained by the department, including copies of records maintained by the court, which pertain to a child found to have committed a delinquent act which, if committed by an adult, would be a crime specified in s. 435.04 may not be destroyed under this section for 25 years after the youth’s final referral to the department, except in cases of the death of the child. Such records, however, shall be sealed by the court for use only in meeting the screening requirements for personnel in s. 402.3055 and the other sections cited above, or under departmental rule; however, current criminal history information must be obtained from the Department of Law Enforcement in accordance with s. 943.053. The information shall be released to those persons specified in the above cited sections for the purposes of complying with those sections. The court may punish by contempt any person who releases or uses the records for any unauthorized purpose.
(b) Sexual offender and predator registration information as required in ss. 775.21, 943.0435, 944.606, 944.607, 985.481, and 985.4815 is a public record pursuant to s. 119.07(1) and as otherwise provided by law.
(7)(a) Records in the custody of the department regarding children are not open to inspection by the public. Such records may be inspected only upon order of the Secretary of Juvenile Justice or his or her authorized agent by persons who have sufficient reason and upon such conditions for their use and disposition as the secretary or his or her authorized agent deems proper. The information in such records may be disclosed only to other employees of the department who have a need therefor in order to perform their official duties; to other persons as authorized by rule of the department; and, upon request, to the Department of Corrections. The secretary or his or her authorized agent may permit properly qualified persons to inspect and make abstracts from records for statistical purposes under whatever conditions upon their use and disposition the secretary or his or her authorized agent deems proper, provided adequate assurances are given that children’s names and other identifying information will not be disclosed by the applicant.
(b) The destruction of records pertaining to children committed to or supervised by the department pursuant to a court order, which records are retained until a child reaches the age of 24 years or until a serious or habitual delinquent child reaches the age of 26 years, shall be subject to chapter 943.
(8) Criminal history information made available to governmental agencies by the Department of Law Enforcement or other criminal justice agencies shall not be used for any purpose other than that specified in the provision authorizing the releases.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 14, ch. 91-57; s. 14, ch. 93-39; s. 2, ch. 93-196; s. 6, ch. 93-200; s. 23, ch. 93-230; s. 33, ch. 94-209; s. 1344, ch. 95-147; s. 117, ch. 95-418; s. 17, ch. 96-369; s. 18, ch. 96-388; s. 26, ch. 97-234; s. 4, ch. 97-238; s. 8, ch. 98-158; s. 128, ch. 99-3; s. 11, ch. 99-284; s. 19, ch. 2000-135; s. 15, ch. 2001-125; s. 120, ch. 2002-1; s. 1051, ch. 2002-387; s. 23, ch. 2004-267; s. 12, ch. 2006-120; s. 10, ch. 2007-209; s. 55, ch. 2010-114; s. 1, ch. 2010-192; s. 58, ch. 2014-191; s. 42, ch. 2014-224; s. 62, ch. 2016-24; s. 1, ch. 2016-78; s. 20, ch. 2016-104.
Note.Former s. 39.045.
985.045 Court records.
(1) The clerk of the court shall make and keep records of all cases brought before it under this chapter. The court shall preserve the records pertaining to a child charged with committing a delinquent act or violation of law until the child reaches 24 years of age or reaches 26 years of age if he or she is a serious or habitual delinquent child, until 5 years after the last entry was made, or until 3 years after the death of the child, whichever is earlier, and may then destroy them, except that records made of traffic offenses in which there is no allegation of delinquency may be destroyed as soon as this can be reasonably accomplished. The court shall make official records of all petitions and orders filed in a case arising under this chapter and of any other pleadings, certificates, proofs of publication, summonses, warrants, and writs that are filed pursuant to the case.
(2) The clerk shall keep all official records required by this section separate from other records of the circuit court, except those records pertaining to motor vehicle violations, which shall be forwarded to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. Except as provided in ss. 943.053 and 985.04(6)(b) and (7), official records required by this chapter are not open to inspection by the public, but may be inspected only upon order of the court by persons deemed by the court to have a proper interest therein, except that a child and the parents, guardians, or legal custodians of the child and their attorneys, law enforcement agencies, the Department of Juvenile Justice and its designees, the Florida Commission on Offender Review, the Department of Corrections, and the Justice Administrative Commission shall always have the right to inspect and copy any official record pertaining to the child. Public defender offices shall have access to official records of juveniles on whose behalf they are expected to appear in detention or other hearings before an appointment of representation. The court may permit authorized representatives of recognized organizations compiling statistics for proper purposes to inspect, and make abstracts from, official records under whatever conditions upon the use and disposition of such records the court may deem proper and may punish by contempt proceedings any violation of those conditions.
(3) All orders of the court entered under this chapter must be in writing and signed by the judge, except that the clerk or deputy clerk may sign a summons or notice to appear.
(4) A court record of proceedings under this chapter is not admissible in evidence in any other civil or criminal proceeding, except that:
(a) Orders transferring a child for trial as an adult are admissible in evidence in the court in which he or she is tried, but create no presumption as to the guilt of the child; nor may such orders be read to, or commented upon in the presence of, the jury in any trial.
(b) Orders binding an adult over for trial on a criminal charge, made by the committing trial court judge, are admissible in evidence in the court to which the adult is bound over.
(c) Records of proceedings under this chapter forming a part of the record on appeal must be used in the appellate court in the manner provided in s. 985.534.
(d) Records are admissible in evidence in any case in which a person is being tried upon a charge of having committed perjury, to the extent such records are necessary to prove the charge.
(e) Records of proceedings under this chapter may be used to prove disqualification under ss. 110.1127, 393.0655, 394.457, 397.4073, 402.305, 402.313, 409.175, 409.176, and 985.644.
(5) This chapter does not prohibit a circuit court from providing a restitution order containing the information prescribed in s. 985.0301(5)(d) to a collection court or a private collection agency for the sole purpose of collecting unpaid restitution ordered in a case in which the circuit court has retained jurisdiction over the child and the child’s parent or legal guardian. The collection court or private collection agency shall maintain the confidential status of the information to the extent such confidentiality is provided by law.
History.s. 5, ch. 97-238; s. 116, ch. 2000-349; s. 51, ch. 2004-11; s. 64, ch. 2005-236; s. 13, ch. 2006-120; s. 11, ch. 2007-209; s. 7, ch. 2012-56; s. 10, ch. 2013-109; s. 7, ch. 2014-162; s. 59, ch. 2014-191; s. 12, ch. 2016-78; s. 34, ch. 2017-173.
Note.Former s. 985.05.
985.046 Statewide information-sharing system; interagency workgroup.
(1) The Department of Education, the Department of Juvenile Justice, and the Department of Law Enforcement shall create an information-sharing workgroup for the purpose of developing and implementing a workable statewide system of sharing information among school districts, state and local law enforcement agencies, providers, the Department of Juvenile Justice, and the Department of Education. The system shall build on processes previously authorized in statute and on any revisions to federal statutes on confidentiality. The information to be shared shall focus on youth who are involved in the juvenile justice system, youth who have been tried as adults and found guilty of felonies, and students who have been serious discipline problems in schools. The participating agencies shall implement improvements that maximize the sharing of information within applicable state and federal statutes and rules and that utilize statewide databases and data delivery systems to streamline access to the information needed to provide joint services to disruptive, violent, and delinquent youth.
(2) The interagency workgroup shall be coordinated through the Department of Education and shall include representatives from the state agencies specified in subsection (1), school superintendents, school district information system directors, principals, teachers, juvenile court judges, police chiefs, county sheriffs, clerks of the circuit court, the Department of Children and Families, providers of juvenile services including a provider from a juvenile substance abuse program, and circuit juvenile justice managers.
(3) The interagency workgroup shall, at a minimum, address the following:
(a) The use of the Florida Information Resource Network and other statewide information access systems as means of delivering information to school personnel or providing an initial screening for purposes of determining whether further access to information is warranted.
(b) A statewide information delivery system that will provide local access by participating agencies and schools.
(c) The need for cooperative agreements among agencies which may access information.
(d) Legal considerations and the need for legislative action necessary for accessing information by participating agencies.
(e) Guidelines for how the information shall be accessed, used, and disseminated.
(f) The organizational level at which information may be accessed and shared.
(g) The specific information to be maintained and shared through the system.
(h) The cost implications of an improved system.
(4) The Department of Education, the Department of Juvenile Justice, and the Department of Law Enforcement shall implement improvements leading to the statewide information access and delivery system, to the extent feasible, and shall develop a cooperative agreement specifying their roles in such a system.
(5) Members of the interagency workgroup shall serve without added compensation and each participating agency shall support the travel, per diem, and other expenses of its representatives.
History.s. 61, ch. 95-267; s. 5, ch. 97-101; s. 6, ch. 97-238; s. 77, ch. 99-5; s. 20, ch. 2000-135; s. 14, ch. 2006-120; s. 344, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 39.0573; s. 985.06.
985.047 Information systems.
(1)(a) For the purpose of assisting in law enforcement administration and decisionmaking, such as juvenile diversion from continued involvement with the law enforcement and judicial systems, the sheriff of the county in which juveniles are taken into custody is encouraged to maintain a central identification file on serious habitual juvenile offenders and on juveniles who are at risk of becoming serious habitual juvenile offenders by virtue of having an arrest record.
(b) The central identification file shall contain, but not be limited to, pertinent dependency record information maintained by the Department of Children and Families and delinquency record information maintained by the Department of Juvenile Justice; pertinent school records, including information on behavior, attendance, and achievement; pertinent information on delinquency and dependency maintained by law enforcement agencies and the state attorney; and pertinent information on delinquency and dependency maintained by those agencies charged with screening, assessment, planning, and treatment responsibilities. The information obtained shall be used to develop a multiagency information sheet on serious habitual juvenile offenders or juveniles who are at risk of becoming serious habitual juvenile offenders. The agencies and persons specified in this paragraph shall cooperate with the law enforcement agency or county in providing needed information and in developing the multiagency information sheet to the greatest extent possible.
(c) As used in this section, “a juvenile who is at risk of becoming a serious habitual juvenile offender” means a juvenile who has been adjudicated delinquent and who meets one or more of the following criteria:
1. Is arrested for a capital, life, or first degree felony offense or sexual battery.
2. Has five or more arrests, at least three of which are for felony offenses. Three of such arrests must have occurred within the preceding 12-month period.
3. Has 10 or more arrests, at least 2 of which are for felony offenses. Three of such arrests must have occurred within the preceding 12-month period.
4. Has four or more arrests, at least one of which is for a felony offense and occurred within the preceding 12-month period.
5. Has 10 or more arrests, at least 8 of which are for any of the following offenses:
a. Petit theft;
b. Misdemeanor assault;
c. Possession of a controlled substance;
d. Weapon or firearm violation; or
e. Substance abuse.

Four of such arrests must have occurred within the preceding 12-month period.

6. Meets at least one of the criteria for criminal gang membership.
(2)(a) Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, confidentiality of records information does not apply to juveniles who have been arrested for an offense that would be a crime if committed by an adult, regarding the sharing of the information on the juvenile with the law enforcement agency or county and any agency or person providing information for the development of the multiagency information sheet as well as the courts, the child, the parents or legal custodians of the child, their attorneys, or any other person authorized by the court to have access. A public or private educational agency shall provide pertinent records to and cooperate with the law enforcement agency or county in providing needed information and developing the multiagency information sheet to the greatest extent possible. Neither these records provided to the law enforcement agency or county nor the records developed from these records for serious habitual juvenile offenders nor the records provided or developed from records provided to the law enforcement agency or county on juveniles at risk of becoming serious habitual juvenile offenders shall be available for public disclosure and inspection under s. 119.07.
(b) The department shall notify the sheriffs of both the prior county of residence and the new county of residence immediately upon learning of the move or other relocation of a juvenile offender who has been adjudicated or had adjudication withheld for a violent misdemeanor or violent felony.
(3) A law enforcement agency or county that implements a juvenile offender information system must annually provide information gathered during the previous year to the delinquency and gang prevention council of the judicial circuit in which the county is located. This information must include the number, types, and patterns of delinquency tracked by the juvenile offender information system.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 5, ch. 92-287; s. 4, ch. 93-196; s. 4, ch. 93-230; s. 49, ch. 94-209; s. 17, ch. 95-267; s. 19, ch. 96-388; s. 166, ch. 97-101; s. 8, ch. 97-238; s. 14, ch. 2006-120; s. 31, ch. 2008-238; s. 168, ch. 2010-102; s. 345, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 39.0585; s. 985.08.
PART III
CUSTODY AND INTAKE;
INTERVENTION AND DIVERSION
985.101 Taking a child into custody.
985.11 Fingerprinting and photographing.
985.115 Release or delivery from custody.
985.12 Civil citation.
985.125 Prearrest or postarrest diversion programs.
985.13 Probable cause affidavits.
985.135 Juvenile assessment centers.
985.14 Intake and case management system.
985.145 Responsibilities of the department during intake; screenings and assessments.
985.15 Filing decisions.
985.155 Neighborhood restorative justice.
985.16 Community arbitration.
985.17 Prevention services.
985.101 Taking a child into custody.
(1) A child may be taken into custody under the following circumstances:
(a) Pursuant to an order of the circuit court issued under this chapter, based upon sworn testimony, either before or after a petition is filed.
(b) For a delinquent act or violation of law, pursuant to Florida law pertaining to a lawful arrest. If such delinquent act or violation of law would be a felony if committed by an adult or involves a crime of violence, the arresting authority shall immediately notify the district school superintendent, or the superintendent’s designee, of the school district with educational jurisdiction of the child. Such notification shall include other education providers such as the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind, university developmental research schools, and private elementary and secondary schools. The information obtained by the superintendent of schools pursuant to this section must be released within 48 hours after receipt to appropriate school personnel, including the principal of the child’s school, or as otherwise provided by law. The principal must immediately notify the child’s immediate classroom teachers. Information provided by an arresting authority under this paragraph may not be placed in the student’s permanent record and shall be removed from all school records no later than 9 months after the date of the arrest.
(c) By a law enforcement officer for failing to appear at a court hearing after being properly noticed.
(d) By a law enforcement officer who has probable cause to believe that the child is in violation of the conditions of the child’s probation, nonsecure detention, postcommitment probation, or conditional release supervision; has absconded from nonresidential commitment; or has escaped from residential commitment.

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to allow the detention of a child who does not meet the detention criteria in part V.

(2) Except in emergency situations, a child may not be placed into or transported in any police car or similar vehicle that at the same time contains an adult under arrest, unless the adult is alleged or believed to be involved in the same offense or transaction as the child.
(3) When a child is taken into custody as provided in this section, the person taking the child into custody shall attempt to notify the parent, guardian, or legal custodian of the child. The person taking the child into custody shall continue such attempt until the parent, guardian, or legal custodian of the child is notified or the child is delivered to the department under ss. 985.14 and 985.145, whichever occurs first. If the child is delivered to the department before the parent, guardian, or legal custodian is notified, the department shall continue the attempt to notify until the parent, guardian, or legal custodian of the child is notified. Following notification, the parent or guardian must provide identifying information, including name, address, date of birth, social security number, and driver license number or identification card number of the parent or guardian to the person taking the child into custody or the department.
(4) Taking a child into custody is not an arrest except for the purpose of determining whether the taking into custody or the obtaining of any evidence in conjunction therewith is lawful.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 3, ch. 92-130; s. 7, ch. 92-287; ss. 26, 31, ch. 94-209; s. 1340, ch. 95-147; s. 7, ch. 95-267; ss. 15, 23, ch. 97-238; ss. 8, 13, ch. 98-207; s. 12, ch. 99-284; s. 6, ch. 2000-134; s. 22, ch. 2000-135; s. 16, ch. 2001-125; s. 2, ch. 2005-263; s. 15, ch. 2006-120; s. 8, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Subsections (1), (3), (4) former s. 39.037; s. 985.207. Subsection (2) former s. 39.044(3); s. 985.215(3).
985.11 Fingerprinting and photographing.
(1)(a) A child who is charged with or found to have committed an offense that would be a felony if committed by an adult shall be fingerprinted and the fingerprints must be submitted to the Department of Law Enforcement as provided in s. 943.051(3)(a).
(b) Unless the child is issued a civil citation or is participating in a similar diversion program pursuant to s. 985.12, a child who is charged with or found to have committed one of the following offenses shall be fingerprinted, and the fingerprints shall be submitted to the Department of Law Enforcement as provided in s. 943.051(3)(b):
1. Assault, as defined in s. 784.011.
2. Battery, as defined in s. 784.03.
3. Carrying a concealed weapon, as defined in s. 790.01(1).
4. Unlawful use of destructive devices or bombs, as defined in s. 790.1615(1).
5. Neglect of a child, as defined in s. 827.03(1)(e).
6. Assault on a law enforcement officer, a firefighter, or other specified officers, as defined in s. 784.07(2)(a).
7. Open carrying of a weapon, as defined in s. 790.053.
8. Exposure of sexual organs, as defined in s. 800.03.
9. Unlawful possession of a firearm, as defined in s. 790.22(5).
10. Petit theft, as defined in s. 812.014.
11. Cruelty to animals, as defined in s. 828.12(1).
12. Arson, resulting in bodily harm to a firefighter, as defined in s. 806.031(1).
13. Unlawful possession or discharge of a weapon or firearm at a school-sponsored event or on school property as defined in s. 790.115.

A law enforcement agency may fingerprint and photograph a child taken into custody upon probable cause that such child has committed any other violation of law, as the agency deems appropriate. Such fingerprint records and photographs shall be retained by the law enforcement agency in a separate file, and these records and all copies thereof must be marked “Juvenile Confidential.” These records are not available for public disclosure and inspection under s. 119.07(1) except as provided in ss. 943.053 and 985.04(2), but shall be available to other law enforcement agencies, criminal justice agencies, state attorneys, the courts, the child, the parents or legal custodians of the child, their attorneys, and any other person authorized by the court to have access to such records. In addition, such records may be submitted to the Department of Law Enforcement for inclusion in the state criminal history records and used by criminal justice agencies for criminal justice purposes. These records may, in the discretion of the court, be open to inspection by anyone upon a showing of cause. The fingerprint and photograph records shall be produced in the court whenever directed by the court. Any photograph taken pursuant to this section may be shown by a law enforcement officer to any victim or witness of a crime for the purpose of identifying the person who committed such crime.

(c) The court shall be responsible for the fingerprinting of any child at the disposition hearing if the child has been adjudicated or had adjudication withheld for any felony in the case currently before the court.
(2) If the child is not referred to the court, or if the child is found not to have committed a violation of law, the court may, after notice to the law enforcement agency involved, order the originals and copies of the fingerprints and photographs destroyed. Unless otherwise ordered by the court, if the child is found to have committed an offense which would be a felony if it had been committed by an adult, then the law enforcement agency having custody of the fingerprint and photograph records shall retain the originals and immediately thereafter forward adequate duplicate copies to the court along with the written offense report relating to the matter for which the child was taken into custody. Except as otherwise provided by this subsection, the clerk of the court, after the disposition hearing on the case, shall forward duplicate copies of the fingerprints and photographs, together with the child’s name, address, date of birth, age, and sex, to:
(a) The sheriff of the county in which the child was taken into custody, in order to maintain a central child identification file in that county.
(b) The law enforcement agency of each municipality having a population in excess of 50,000 persons and located in the county of arrest, if so requested specifically or by a general request by that agency.
(3) This section does not prohibit the fingerprinting or photographing of child traffic violators. All records of such traffic violations shall be kept in the full name of the violator and shall be open to inspection and publication in the same manner as adult traffic violations. This section does not apply to the photographing of children by the Department of Juvenile Justice or the Department of Children and Families.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 6, ch. 93-204; s. 28, ch. 94-209; s. 8, ch. 95-267; s. 2, ch. 96-293; s. 20, ch. 96-322; s. 17, ch. 96-388; s. 13, ch. 96-406; s. 162, ch. 97-101; s. 20, ch. 97-238; s. 14, ch. 99-284; s. 2, ch. 2002-51; s. 17, ch. 2006-120; s. 7, ch. 2007-112; s. 64, ch. 2013-116; s. 346, ch. 2014-19; s. 10, ch. 2014-162; s. 3, ch. 2015-46; s. 13, ch. 2016-78.
Note.Former s. 39.039; s. 985.212.
985.115 Release or delivery from custody.
(1) A child taken into custody shall be released from custody as soon as is reasonably possible.
(2) Unless otherwise ordered by the court under s. 985.255 or s. 985.26, and unless there is a need to hold the child, a person taking a child into custody shall attempt to release the child as follows:
(a) To the child’s parent, guardian, or legal custodian or, if the child’s parent, guardian, or legal custodian is unavailable, unwilling, or unable to provide supervision for the child, to any responsible adult. Prior to releasing the child to a responsible adult, other than the parent, guardian, or legal custodian, the person taking the child into custody may conduct a criminal history background check of the person to whom the child is to be released. If the person has a prior felony conviction, or a conviction for child abuse, drug trafficking, or prostitution, that person is not a responsible adult for the purposes of this section. The person to whom the child is released shall agree to inform the department or the person releasing the child of the child’s subsequent change of address and to produce the child in court at such time as the court may direct, and the child shall join in the agreement.
(b) Contingent upon specific appropriation, to a shelter approved by the department or to an authorized agent.
(c) If the child is believed to be suffering from a serious physical condition which requires either prompt diagnosis or prompt treatment, to a law enforcement officer who shall deliver the child to a hospital for necessary evaluation and treatment.
(d) If the child is believed to be mentally ill as defined in s. 394.463(1), to a law enforcement officer who shall take the child to a designated public receiving facility as defined in s. 394.455 for examination under s. 394.463.
(e) If the child appears to be intoxicated and has threatened, attempted, or inflicted physical harm on himself or herself or another, or is incapacitated by substance abuse, to a law enforcement officer who shall deliver the child to a hospital, addictions receiving facility, or treatment resource.
(f) If available, to a juvenile assessment center equipped and staffed to assume custody of the child for the purpose of assessing the needs of the child in custody. The center may then release or deliver the child under this section with a copy of the assessment.
(3) Upon taking a child into custody, a law enforcement officer may deliver the child, for temporary custody not to exceed 6 hours, to a secure booking area of a jail or other facility intended or used for the detention of adults, for the purpose of fingerprinting or photographing the child or awaiting appropriate transport to the department or as provided in s. 985.13(2), provided no regular sight and sound contact between the child and adult inmates or trustees is permitted and the receiving facility has adequate staff to supervise and monitor the child’s activities at all times.
(4) Nothing in this section or s. 985.13 shall prohibit the proper use of law enforcement diversion programs. Law enforcement agencies may initiate and conduct diversion programs designed to divert a child from the need for department custody or judicial handling. Such programs may be cooperative projects with local community service agencies.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 9, ch. 92-287; s. 27, ch. 94-209; s. 1341, ch. 95-147; s. 19, ch. 97-238; s. 18, ch. 2006-120; s. 9, ch. 2012-105; s. 6, ch. 2014-161; s. 10, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.038(1), (2), (5), (7); s. 985.211(1), (2), (5), (7).
985.12 Civil citation.
(1) There is established a juvenile civil citation process for the purpose of providing an efficient and innovative alternative to custody by the Department of Juvenile Justice for children who commit nonserious delinquent acts and to ensure swift and appropriate consequences. The department shall encourage and assist in the implementation and improvement of civil citation programs or other similar diversion programs around the state. The civil citation or similar diversion program shall be established at the local level with the concurrence of the chief judge of the circuit, state attorney, public defender, and the head of each local law enforcement agency involved. The program may be operated by an entity such as a law enforcement agency, the department, a juvenile assessment center, the county or municipality, or another entity selected by the county or municipality. An entity operating the civil citation or similar diversion program must do so in consultation and agreement with the state attorney and local law enforcement agencies. Under such a juvenile civil citation or similar diversion program, a law enforcement officer, upon making contact with a juvenile who admits having committed a misdemeanor, may choose to issue a simple warning or inform the child’s guardian or parent of the child’s infraction, or may issue a civil citation or require participation in a similar diversion program, and assess up to 50 community service hours, and require participation in intervention services as indicated by an assessment of the needs of the juvenile, including family counseling, urinalysis monitoring, and substance abuse and mental health treatment services. A copy of each citation issued under this section shall be provided to the department, and the department shall enter appropriate information into the juvenile offender information system. Use of the civil citation or similar diversion program is not limited to first-time misdemeanors and may be used in up to two subsequent misdemeanors. If an arrest is made, a law enforcement officer must provide written documentation as to why an arrest was warranted. At the conclusion of a juvenile’s civil citation program or similar diversion program, the agency operating the program shall report the outcome to the department. The issuance of a civil citation is not considered a referral to the department.
(2) The department shall develop guidelines for the civil citation program which include intervention services that are based upon proven civil citation or similar diversion programs within the state.
(3) Upon issuing such citation, the law enforcement officer shall send a copy to the county sheriff, state attorney, the appropriate intake office of the department, or the community service performance monitor designated by the department, the parent or guardian of the child, and the victim.
(4) The child shall report to the community service performance monitor within 7 working days after the date of issuance of the citation. The work assignment shall be accomplished at a rate of not less than 5 hours per week. The monitor shall advise the intake office immediately upon reporting by the child to the monitor, that the child has in fact reported and the expected date upon which completion of the work assignment will be accomplished.
(5) If the child fails to report timely for a work assignment, complete a work assignment, or comply with assigned intervention services within the prescribed time, or if the juvenile commits a subsequent misdemeanor, the law enforcement officer shall issue a report alleging the child has committed a delinquent act, at which point a juvenile probation officer shall process the original delinquent act as a referral to the department and refer the report to the state attorney for review.
(6) At the time of issuance of the citation by the law enforcement officer, such officer shall advise the child that the child has the option to refuse the citation and to be referred to the intake office of the department. That option may be exercised at any time before completion of the work assignment.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 1, ch. 92-20; s. 23, ch. 94-209; s. 45, ch. 97-238; s. 19, ch. 98-207; s. 19, ch. 2006-120; s. 1, ch. 2011-124; s. 1, ch. 2015-46.
Note.Former s. 39.0255; s. 985.301.
985.125 Prearrest or postarrest diversion programs.
(1) A law enforcement agency or school district, in cooperation with the state attorney, may establish a prearrest or postarrest diversion program.
(2) As part of the prearrest or postarrest diversion program, a child who is alleged to have committed a delinquent act may be required to surrender his or her driver license, or refrain from applying for a driver license, for not more than 90 days. If the child fails to comply with the requirements of the program, the state attorney may notify the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in writing to suspend the child’s driver license for a period that may not exceed 90 days.
(3) The prearrest or postarrest diversion program may, upon agreement of the agencies that establish the program, provide for the expunction of the nonjudicial arrest record of a minor who successfully completes such a program pursuant to s. 943.0582.
History.s. 1, ch. 99-267; s. 29, ch. 2001-125; s. 11, ch. 2001-127; s. 20, ch. 2006-120; s. 4, ch. 2016-42.
Note.Former s. 985.3065.
985.13 Probable cause affidavits.
(1) If the child is released, the person taking the child into custody shall make a written report or probable cause affidavit to the appropriate juvenile probation officer within 24 hours after such release, stating the facts and the reason for taking the child into custody. Such written report or probable cause affidavit shall:
(a) Identify the child, the parents, guardian, or legal custodian, and the person to whom the child was released.
(b) Contain sufficient information to establish the jurisdiction of the court and to make a prima facie showing that the child has committed a violation of law or a delinquent act.
(2) A person taking a child into custody who determines, under part V, that the child should be detained or released to a shelter designated by the department, shall make a reasonable effort to immediately notify the parent, guardian, or legal custodian of the child and shall, without unreasonable delay, deliver the child to the appropriate juvenile probation officer or, if the court has so ordered under s. 985.255 or s. 985.26, to a detention center or facility. Upon delivery of the child, the person taking the child into custody shall make a written report or probable cause affidavit to the appropriate juvenile probation officer. Such written report or probable cause affidavit must:
(a) Identify the child and, if known, the parents, guardian, or legal custodian.
(b) Establish that the child was legally taken into custody, with sufficient information to establish the jurisdiction of the court and to make a prima facie showing that the child has committed a violation of law.
(3)(a) A copy of the probable cause affidavit or written report made by the person taking the child into custody shall be filed, by the law enforcement agency which employs the person making such affidavit or written report, with the clerk of the circuit court for the county in which the child is taken into custody or in which the affidavit or report is made within 24 hours after the affidavit or report is made, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays. Such affidavit or report is a case for the purpose of assigning a uniform case number under this subsection.
(b) Upon the filing of a copy of a probable cause affidavit or written report by a law enforcement agency with the clerk of the circuit court, the clerk shall immediately assign a uniform case number to the affidavit or report, forward a copy to the state attorney, and forward a copy to the intake office of the department which serves the county in which the case arose.
(c) Each letter of recommendation, written notice, report, or other paper required by law pertaining to the case shall bear the uniform case number of the case, and a copy shall be filed with the clerk of the circuit court by the issuing agency. The issuing agency shall furnish copies to the juvenile probation officer and the state attorney.
(d) Upon the filing of a petition based on the allegations of a previously filed probable cause affidavit or written report, the agency filing the petition shall include the appropriate uniform case number on the petition.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 9, ch. 92-287; s. 27, ch. 94-209; s. 1341, ch. 95-147; s. 19, ch. 97-238; s. 12, ch. 98-207; s. 7, ch. 2000-134; s. 21, ch. 2006-120; s. 11, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.038(3), (4), (6); s. 985.211(3), (4), (6).
985.135 Juvenile assessment centers.
(1) As used in this section, “center” means a juvenile assessment center comprising community operated facilities and programs which provide collocated central intake and screening services for youth referred to the department.
(2) The department shall work cooperatively with substance abuse programs, mental health providers, law enforcement agencies, schools, health service providers, state attorneys, public defenders, and other agencies serving youth to establish juvenile assessment centers. Each current and newly established center shall be developed and modified through the local initiative of community agencies and local governments and shall provide a broad array of youth-related services appropriate to the needs of the community where the center is located.
(3) Each center shall be managed and governed by the participating agencies, consistent with respective statutory requirements of each agency, through an advisory committee and interagency agreements established with participating entities. The advisory committee shall guide the center’s operation and ensure that appropriate and relevant agencies are collaboratively participating in and providing services at the center. Each participating state agency shall have operational oversight of only those individual service components located and provided at the center for which the state agency has statutory authority and responsibility.
(4) Each center shall provide collocated central intake and screening services for youth referred to the department. The center shall provide sufficient services needed to facilitate the initial screening of and case processing for youth, including, at a minimum, delinquency intake; positive identification of the youth; detention admission screening; needs assessment; substance abuse screening and assessments; physical and mental health screening; and diagnostic testing as appropriate. The department shall provide sufficient staff and resources at a center to provide detention screening and intake services.
(5) Each center is authorized and encouraged to establish truancy programs. A truancy program may serve as providing the central intake and screening of truant children for a specific geographic area based upon written agreements between the center, local law enforcement agencies, and local school boards. A center may work cooperatively with any truancy program operating in the area serving the center.
(6) Each center must provide for the coordination and sharing of information among the participating agencies to facilitate the screening of and case processing for youth referred to the department.
(7) The department may utilize juvenile assessment centers to the fullest extent possible for the purpose of conducting predisposition assessments and evaluations of youth. Assessments and evaluations may be conducted by juvenile assessment center staff on a youth while he or she is in a juvenile detention center awaiting placement in a residential commitment facility. If feasible, a youth may be transported from a juvenile detention center to a juvenile assessment center for the purpose of conducting an assessment or evaluation. Such assessments and evaluations may include, but are not limited to, needs assessment; substance abuse evaluations; physical and mental health evaluations; psychological evaluations; behavioral assessments; educational assessments; aptitude testing; and vocational testing. To the extent possible, the youth’s parents or guardians and other family members should be involved in the assessment and evaluation process. All information, conclusions, treatment recommendations, and reports derived from any assessment and evaluation performed on a youth shall be included as a part of the youth’s commitment packet and shall accompany the youth to the residential commitment facility in which the youth is placed.
History.s. 36, ch. 94-209; s. 17, ch. 97-238; s. 10, ch. 98-207; s. 4, ch. 2000-327; s. 22, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.0471; s. 985.209.
985.14 Intake and case management system.
(1) The department shall develop an intake and a case management system whereby a child brought into intake is assigned a juvenile probation officer if the child was not released, referred to a diversionary program, referred for community arbitration, or referred to some other program or agency for the purpose of nonofficial or nonjudicial handling, and shall make every reasonable effort to provide case management services for the child; provided, however, that case management for children committed to residential programs may be transferred as provided in s. 985.46.
(2) The intake process shall be performed by the department or juvenile assessment center personnel through a case management system. The purpose of the intake process is to assess the child’s needs and risks and to determine the most appropriate treatment plan and setting for the child’s programmatic needs and risks. The intake process shall consist of a preliminary screening and may be followed by a comprehensive assessment. The comprehensive assessment may consist of a full mental health, cognitive impairment, substance abuse, or psychosexual evaluation. The intake process shall result in choosing the most appropriate services through a balancing of the interests and needs of the child with those of the family and the community. The department shall be responsible for making informed decisions and recommendations to other agencies, the state attorney, and the courts so that the child and family may receive the least intrusive service alternative throughout the judicial process. The department shall establish uniform procedures for the department to provide a preliminary screening of the child and family for substance abuse and mental health services prior to the filing of a petition or as soon as possible thereafter and prior to a disposition hearing.
(3) The intake and case management system shall facilitate consistency in the recommended placement of each child, and in the assessment, classification, and placement process, with the following purposes:
(a) An individualized, multidisciplinary assessment process that identifies the priority needs of each child for rehabilitation and treatment and identifies any needs of the child’s parents or guardians for services that would enhance their ability to provide adequate support, guidance, and supervision for the child. The process begins with the detention risk assessment instrument and decision, includes the intake preliminary screening and comprehensive assessment for substance abuse treatment services, mental health services, intellectual disability services, literacy services, and other educational and treatment services as components, additional assessment of the child’s treatment needs, and classification regarding the child’s risks to the community. The completed multidisciplinary assessment process must result in the predisposition report.
(b) A classification system that assigns a relative risk to the child and the community based upon assessments including the detention risk assessment results when available to classify the child’s risk as it relates to placement and supervision alternatives.
(c) An admissions process that facilitates for each child the utilization of the treatment plan and setting most appropriate to meet the child’s programmatic needs and provide the minimum program security needed to ensure public safety.
(4) The department shall annually advise the Legislature and the Executive Office of the Governor of the resources needed in order for the intake and case management system to maintain a staff-to-client ratio that is consistent with accepted standards and allows the necessary supervision and services for each child. The intake process and case management system shall provide a comprehensive approach to assessing the child’s needs, relative risks, and most appropriate handling, and shall be based on an individualized treatment plan.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 8, ch. 92-287; s. 7, ch. 93-230; s. 35, ch. 94-209; s. 1346, ch. 95-147; s. 163, ch. 97-101; s. 18, ch. 97-238; s. 11, ch. 98-207; s. 23, ch. 2000-135; s. 23, ch. 2006-120; s. 91, ch. 2012-5; s. 3, ch. 2012-56; s. 46, ch. 2013-162; s. 11, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.047(1), (2); s. 985.21(1), (2).
985.145 Responsibilities of the department during intake; screenings and assessments.
(1) The department shall serve as the primary case manager for the purpose of managing, coordinating, and monitoring the services provided to the child. Each program administrator within the Department of Children and Families shall cooperate with the primary case manager in carrying out the duties and responsibilities described in this section. In addition to duties specified in other sections and through departmental rules, the department shall be responsible for the following:
(a) Reviewing probable cause affidavit.The department shall make a preliminary determination as to whether the report, affidavit, or complaint is complete, consulting with the state attorney as may be necessary. A report, affidavit, or complaint alleging that a child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law shall be made to the intake office operating in the county in which the child is found or in which the delinquent act or violation of law occurred. Any person or agency having knowledge of the facts may make such a written report, affidavit, or complaint and shall furnish to the intake office facts sufficient to establish the jurisdiction of the court and to support a finding by the court that the child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law.
(b) Notification concerning apparent insufficiencies in probable cause affidavit.In any case where the department or the state attorney finds that the report, affidavit, or complaint is insufficient by the standards for a probable cause affidavit, the department or state attorney shall return the report, affidavit, or complaint, without delay, to the person or agency originating the report, affidavit, or complaint or having knowledge of the facts or to the appropriate law enforcement agency having investigative jurisdiction of the offense, and shall request, and the person or agency shall promptly furnish, additional information in order to comply with the standards for a probable cause affidavit.
(c) Screening.During the intake process, the department shall screen each child or shall cause each child to be screened in order to determine:
1. Appropriateness for release; referral to a diversionary program, including, but not limited to, a teen court program; referral for community arbitration; or referral to some other program or agency for the purpose of nonofficial or nonjudicial handling.
2. The presence of medical, psychiatric, psychological, substance abuse, educational, or career and technical education problems, or other conditions that may have caused the child to come to the attention of law enforcement or the department. The child shall also be screened to determine whether the child poses a danger to himself or herself or others in the community. The results of this screening shall be made available to the court and to court officers. In cases where such conditions are identified and a nonjudicial handling of the case is chosen, the department shall attempt to refer the child to a program or agency, together with all available and relevant assessment information concerning the child’s precipitating condition.
(d) Completing risk assessment instrument.The department shall ensure that a risk assessment instrument establishing the child’s eligibility for detention has been accurately completed and that the appropriate recommendation was made to the court.
(e) Rights.The department shall inquire as to whether the child understands his or her rights to counsel and against self-incrimination.
(f) Multidisciplinary assessment.The department shall coordinate the multidisciplinary assessment when required, which includes the classification and placement process that determines the child’s priority needs, risk classification, and treatment plan. When sufficient evidence exists to warrant a comprehensive assessment and the child fails to voluntarily participate in the assessment efforts, the department shall inform the court of the need for the assessment and the refusal of the child to participate in such assessment. This assessment, classification, and placement process shall develop into the predisposition report.
(g) Comprehensive assessment.The department, pursuant to uniform procedures established by the department and upon determining that the report, affidavit, or complaint is complete, shall:
1. Perform the preliminary screening and make referrals for a comprehensive assessment regarding the child’s need for substance abuse treatment services, mental health services, intellectual disability services, literacy services, or other educational or treatment services.
2. If indicated by the preliminary screening, provide for a comprehensive assessment of the child and family for substance abuse problems, using community-based licensed programs with clinical expertise and experience in the assessment of substance abuse problems.
3. If indicated by the preliminary screening, provide for a comprehensive assessment of the child and family for mental health problems, using community-based psychologists, psychiatrists, or other licensed mental health professionals who have clinical expertise and experience in the assessment of mental health problems.
(h) Referrals for services.The department shall make recommendations for services and facilitate the delivery of those services to the child, including any mental health services, educational services, family counseling services, family assistance services, and substance abuse services.
(i) Recommendation concerning a petition.Upon determining that the report, affidavit, or complaint complies with the standards of a probable cause affidavit and that the interests of the child and the public will be best served, the department may recommend that a delinquency petition not be filed. If such a recommendation is made, the department shall advise in writing the person or agency making the report, affidavit, or complaint, the victim, if any, and the law enforcement agency having investigative jurisdiction over the offense of the recommendation; the reasons therefor; and that the person or agency may submit, within 10 days after the receipt of such notice, the report, affidavit, or complaint to the state attorney for special review. The state attorney, upon receiving a request for special review, shall consider the facts presented by the report, affidavit, or complaint, and by the department who made the recommendation that no petition be filed, before making a final decision as to whether a petition or information should or should not be filed.
(j) Completing intake report.Subject to the interagency agreement authorized under this paragraph, the department shall submit a written report to the state attorney for each case in which a child is alleged to have committed a violation of law or delinquent act and is not detained. The report shall be submitted within 20 days after the date the child is taken into custody and include the original police report, complaint, or affidavit, or a copy thereof, and a copy of the child’s prior juvenile record. In cases in which the child is in detention, the intake office report must be submitted within 24 hours after the child is placed into detention. The intake office report may include a recommendation that a petition or information be filed or that no petition or information be filed and may set forth reasons for the recommendation. The state attorney and the department may, on a district-by-district basis, enter into interagency agreements denoting the cases that will require a recommendation and those for which a recommendation is unnecessary.
(2) Prior to requesting that a delinquency petition be filed or prior to filing a dependency petition, the department may request the parent or legal guardian of the child to attend a course of instruction in parenting skills, training in conflict resolution, and the practice of nonviolence; to accept counseling; or to receive other assistance from any agency in the community which notifies the clerk of the court of the availability of its services. Where appropriate, the department shall request both parents or guardians to receive such parental assistance. The department may, in determining whether to request that a delinquency petition be filed, take into consideration the willingness of the parent or legal guardian to comply with such request. The parent or guardian must provide the department with identifying information, including the parent’s or guardian’s name, address, date of birth, social security number, and driver license number or identification card number in order to comply with s. 985.039.
(3) When indicated by the comprehensive assessment, the department is authorized to contract within appropriated funds for services with a local nonprofit community mental health or substance abuse agency licensed or authorized under chapter 394 or chapter 397 or other authorized nonprofit social service agency providing related services. The determination of mental health or substance abuse services shall be conducted in coordination with existing programs providing mental health or substance abuse services in conjunction with the intake office.
(4) Client information resulting from the screening and evaluation shall be documented under rules of the department and shall serve to assist the department in providing the most appropriate services and recommendations in the least intrusive manner. Such client information shall be used in the multidisciplinary assessment and classification of the child, but such information, and any information obtained directly or indirectly through the assessment process, is inadmissible in court prior to the disposition hearing, unless the child’s written consent is obtained. At the disposition hearing, documented client information shall serve to assist the court in making the most appropriate custody, adjudicatory, and dispositional decision.
(5) If the screening and assessment indicate that the interests of the child and the public will be best served, the department, with the approval of the state attorney, may refer the child for care, diagnostic, and evaluation services; substance abuse treatment services; mental health services; intellectual disability services; a diversionary, arbitration, or mediation program; community service work; or other programs or treatment services voluntarily accepted by the child and the child’s parents or legal guardian. If a child volunteers to participate in any work program under this chapter or volunteers to work in a specified state, county, municipal, or community service organization supervised work program or to work for the victim, the child is considered an employee of the state for the purposes of liability. In determining the child’s average weekly wage, unless otherwise determined by a specific funding program, all remuneration received from the employer is considered a gratuity, and the child is not entitled to any benefits otherwise payable under s. 440.15 regardless of whether the child may be receiving wages and remuneration from other employment with another employer and regardless of the child’s future wage-earning capacity.
(6) The victim, if any, and the law enforcement agency that investigated the offense shall be notified immediately by the state attorney of the action taken under subsection (5).
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 16, ch. 93-39; s. 35, ch. 94-209; s. 12, ch. 95-267; s. 2, ch. 96-234; s. 18, ch. 97-238; s. 11, ch. 98-207; s. 2, ch. 99-257; s. 34, ch. 99-284; s. 17, ch. 2001-125; s. 2, ch. 2004-241; s. 24, ch. 2006-120; s. 47, ch. 2013-162; s. 347, ch. 2014-19; s. 12, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.047(3)-(5); s. 985.21(3)-(5).
985.15 Filing decisions.
(1) The state attorney may in all cases take action independent of the action or lack of action of the juvenile probation officer and shall determine the action that is in the best interest of the public and the child. If the child meets the criteria requiring prosecution as an adult under s. 985.556, the state attorney shall request the court to transfer and certify the child for prosecution as an adult or shall provide written reasons to the court for not making such a request. In all other cases, the state attorney may:
(a) File a petition for dependency;
(b) File a petition under chapter 984;
(c) File a petition for delinquency;
(d) File a petition for delinquency with a motion to transfer and certify the child for prosecution as an adult;
(e) File an information under s. 985.557;
(f) Refer the case to a grand jury;
(g) Refer the child to a diversionary, pretrial intervention, arbitration, or mediation program, or to some other treatment or care program if such program commitment is voluntarily accepted by the child or the child’s parents or legal guardian; or
(h) Decline to file.
(2) In cases in which a delinquency report, affidavit, or complaint is filed by a law enforcement agency and the state attorney determines not to file a petition, the state attorney shall advise the clerk of the circuit court in writing that no petition will be filed thereon.
History.s. 25, ch. 2006-120.
985.155 Neighborhood restorative justice.
(1) DEFINITIONS.For purposes of this section, the term:
(a) “Board” means a Restorative Justice Board established by the state attorney pursuant to subsection (3).
(b) “Center” means a Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center established by the state attorney pursuant to subsection (2).
(c) “First-time, nonviolent juvenile offender” means a minor who allegedly has committed a delinquent act or violation of law that would not be a crime of violence providing grounds for detention or incarceration and who does not have a previous record of being found to have committed a criminal or delinquent act or other violation of law.
(2) NEIGHBORHOOD RESTORATIVE JUSTICE CENTER.
(a) The state attorney may establish at least one Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center in designated geographical areas in the county for the purposes of operating a deferred prosecution program for first-time, nonviolent juvenile offenders.
(b) The state attorney may refer any first-time, nonviolent juvenile offender accused of committing a delinquent act to a Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center.
(3) RESTORATIVE JUSTICE BOARD.
(a) The state attorney may establish Restorative Justice Boards consisting of five volunteer members, of which: two are appointed by the state attorney; two are appointed by the public defender; and one is appointed by the chief judge of the circuit. The state attorney shall appoint a chair for each board.
(b) The board has jurisdiction to hear all matters involving first-time, nonviolent juvenile offenders who are alleged to have committed a delinquent act within the geographical area covered by the board.
(4) DEFERRED PROSECUTION PROGRAM; PROCEDURES.
(a) The participation by a juvenile in the deferred prosecution program through a Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center is voluntary. To participate in the deferred prosecution program, the juvenile who is referred to a Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center must take responsibility for the actions which led to the current accusation. The juvenile and the juvenile’s parent or legal guardian must waive the juvenile’s right to a speedy trial and the right to be represented by a public defender while in the Neighborhood Restorative Justice program. This waiver and acknowledgment of responsibility shall not be construed as an admission of guilt in future proceedings. The board or the board’s representative must inform the juvenile and the parent or legal guardian of the juvenile’s legal rights prior to the signing of the waiver.
(b) If the state attorney refers a juvenile matter to a Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center, the board shall convene a meeting within 15 days after receiving the referral.
(c) The board shall require the parent or legal guardian of the juvenile who is referred to a Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center to appear with the juvenile before the board at the time set by the board. In scheduling board meetings, the board shall be cognizant of a parent’s or legal guardian’s other obligations. The failure of a parent or legal guardian to appear at the scheduled board meeting with his or her child or ward may be considered by the juvenile court as an act of child neglect as defined by s. 39.01, and the board may refer the matter to the Department of Children and Families for investigation under the provisions of chapter 39.
(d) The board shall serve notice of a board meeting on the juvenile referred to the Neighborhood Restorative Justice Center, the juvenile’s parent or guardian, and the victim or family of the victim of the alleged offense. These persons and their representatives have the right to appear and participate in any meeting conducted by the board relative to the alleged offense in which they were the alleged juvenile offender or parent or guardian of the alleged juvenile offender, or victim or family of the victim of the alleged juvenile offender. The victim or a person representing the victim may vote with the board.
(5) SANCTIONS.After holding a meeting pursuant to paragraph (4)(d), the board may impose any of the following sanctions alone or in any combination:
(a) Require the juvenile to make restitution to the victim.
(b) Require the juvenile to perform work for the victim.
(c) Require the juvenile to make restitution to the community.
(d) Require the juvenile to perform work for the community.
(e) Recommend that the juvenile participate in counseling, education, or treatment services that are coordinated by the state attorney.
(f) Require the juvenile to surrender the juvenile’s driver license and forward a copy of the board’s resolution to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. The department, upon receipt of the license, shall suspend the driving privileges of the juvenile, or the juvenile may be restricted to travel between the juvenile’s home, school, and place of employment during specified periods of time according to the juvenile’s school and employment schedule.
(g) Refer the matter to the state attorney for the filing of a petition with the juvenile court.
(h) Impose any other sanction except detention that the board determines is necessary to fully and fairly resolve the matter.
(6) WRITTEN CONTRACT.
(a) The board, on behalf of the community, and the juvenile, the juvenile’s parent or guardian, and the victim or representative of the victim, shall sign a written contract in which the parties agree to the board’s resolution of the matter and in which the juvenile’s parent or guardian agrees to ensure that the juvenile complies with the contract. The contract may provide that the parent or guardian shall post a bond payable to this state to secure the performance of any sanction imposed upon the juvenile pursuant to subsection (5).
(b) A breach of the contract by any party may be sanctioned by the juvenile court as it deems appropriate upon motion by any party.
(c) If the juvenile disagrees with the resolution of the board, the juvenile may file a notice with the board within 3 working days after the board makes its resolution that the juvenile has rejected the board’s resolution. After receiving notice of the juvenile’s rejection, the state attorney shall file a petition in juvenile court.
(7) COMPLETION OF SANCTIONS.
(a) If the juvenile accepts the resolution of the board and successfully completes the sanctions imposed by the board, the state attorney shall not file a petition in juvenile court and the board’s resolution shall not be used against the juvenile in any further proceeding and is not an adjudication of delinquency. The resolution of the board is not a conviction of a crime, does not impose any civil disabilities ordinarily resulting from a conviction, and does not disqualify the juvenile in any civil service application or appointment.
(b) If the juvenile accepts the resolution reached by the board but fails to successfully complete the sanctions imposed by it, the state attorney may file the matter with the juvenile court.
(c) Upon successful completion of the sanctions imposed by the board, the juvenile shall submit to the board proof of completion. The board shall determine the form and manner in which a juvenile presents proof of completion.
(8) CONSTRUCTION.This section shall not be construed to diminish, impair, or otherwise affect any rights conferred on victims of crimes under chapter 960, relating to victim assistance, or any other provisions of law.
History.s. 8, ch. 96-398; s. 24, ch. 97-96; s. 161, ch. 97-101; s. 47, ch. 97-238; s. 170, ch. 98-403; s. 2, ch. 2000-327; s. 26, ch. 2006-120; s. 348, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 39.0361; s. 985.303.
985.16 Community arbitration.
(1) PURPOSE.The purpose of community arbitration is to provide a system by which children who commit delinquent acts may be dealt with in a speedy and informal manner at the community or neighborhood level, in an attempt to reduce the ever-increasing instances of delinquent acts and permit the judicial system to deal effectively with cases which are more serious in nature.
(2) PROGRAMS.
(a) Each county may establish community arbitration programs designed to complement the department’s intake process provided in this chapter. Community arbitration programs shall provide one or more community arbitrators or community arbitration panels to hear informally cases which involve alleged commissions of certain delinquent acts by children.
(b) Cases which may be referred to a community arbitrator or community arbitration panel are limited to those which involve violations of local ordinances, those which involve misdemeanors, and those which involve third degree felonies, exclusive of third degree felonies involving personal violence, grand theft auto, or the use of a weapon.
(c) A child who has been the subject of at least one prior adjudication or adjudication withheld for any first or second degree felony offense, any third degree felony offense involving personal violence, grand theft auto, or the use of a weapon, or any other offense not eligible for arbitration, shall not be eligible for resolution of any current offense through community arbitration.
(d) Cases resolved through community arbitration shall be limited pursuant to this subsection.
1. For each child referred to community arbitration, the primary offense shall be assigned a point value.
a. Misdemeanor offenses shall be assigned two points for a misdemeanor of the second degree, four points for a nonviolent misdemeanor of the first degree, and six points for a misdemeanor of the first degree involving violence.
b. Eligible third degree felony offenses shall be assigned eight points.
2. There is not a restriction on the limit of separate incidents for which a law enforcement officer may refer a child to community arbitration, but a child who has accrued a point value of 12 or more points through community arbitration prior to the current offense shall no longer be eligible for community arbitration.
3. The point values provided in this paragraph shall also be assigned to a child’s prior adjudications or adjudications withheld on eligible offenses for cases not referred to community arbitration.
(3) COMMUNITY ARBITRATORS.The chief judge of each judicial circuit shall maintain a list of qualified persons who have agreed to serve as community arbitrators for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this chapter. Community arbitrators shall meet the qualification and training requirements adopted in rule by the Supreme Court. Whenever possible, qualified volunteers shall be used as community arbitrators.
(a) Each community arbitrator or member of a community arbitration panel shall be selected by the chief judge of the circuit, the senior circuit court judge assigned to juvenile cases in the circuit, and the state attorney. A community arbitrator or, in the case of a panel, the chief arbitrator shall have such powers as are necessary to conduct the proceedings in a fair and expeditious manner.
(b) A community arbitrator or member of a community arbitration panel shall be trained or experienced in juvenile causes and shall be:
1. Either a graduate of an accredited law school or of an accredited school with a degree in behavioral social work or trained in conflict resolution techniques; and
2. A person of the temperament necessary to deal properly with cases involving children and with the family crises likely to be presented to him or her.
(4) PROCEDURE FOR INITIATING CASES FOR COMMUNITY ARBITRATION.
(a) Any law enforcement officer may issue a complaint, along with a recommendation for community arbitration, against any child who such officer has reason to believe has committed any offense that is eligible for community arbitration. The complaint shall specify the offense and the reasons why the law enforcement officer feels that the offense should be handled by community arbitration. Any juvenile probation officer or, at the request of the child’s parent or legal custodian or guardian, the state attorney or the court having jurisdiction, with the concurrence of the state attorney, may refer a complaint to be handled by community arbitration when appropriate. A copy of the complaint shall be forwarded to the appropriate juvenile probation officer and the parent or legal custodian or guardian of the child within 48 hours after issuance of the complaint. In addition to the complaint, the child and the parent or legal custodian or guardian shall be informed of the objectives of the community arbitration process; the conditions, procedures, and timeframes under which it will be conducted; and the fact that it is not obligatory. The juvenile probation officer shall contact the child and the parent or legal custodian or guardian within 2 days after the date on which the complaint was received. At this time, the child or the parent or legal custodian or guardian shall inform the juvenile probation officer of the decision to approve or reject the handling of the complaint through community arbitration.
(b) The juvenile probation officer shall verify accurate identification of the child and determine whether or not the child has any prior adjudications or adjudications withheld for an offense eligible for community arbitration for consideration in the point value structure. If the child has at least one prior adjudication or adjudication withheld for an offense which is not eligible for community arbitration, or if the child has already surpassed the accepted level of points on prior community arbitration resolutions, the juvenile probation officer shall consult with the state attorney regarding the filing of formal juvenile proceedings.
(c) If the child or the parent or legal custodian or guardian rejects the handling of the complaint through community arbitration, the juvenile probation officer shall consult with the state attorney for the filing of formal juvenile proceedings.
(d) If the child or the parent or legal custodian or guardian accepts the handling of the complaint through community arbitration, the juvenile probation officer shall provide copies of the complaint to the arbitrator or panel within 24 hours.
(e) The community arbitrator or community arbitration panel shall, upon receipt of the complaint, set a time and date for a hearing within 7 days and shall inform the child’s parent or legal custodian or guardian, the complaining witness, and any victims of the time, date, and place of the hearing.
(5) HEARINGS.
(a) The law enforcement officer who issued the complaint need not appear at the scheduled hearing. However, prior to the hearing, the officer shall file with the community arbitrator or the community arbitration panel a comprehensive report setting forth the facts and circumstances surrounding the allegation.
(b) Records and reports submitted by interested agencies and parties, including, but not limited to, complaining witnesses and victims, may be received in evidence before the community arbitrator or the community arbitration panel without the necessity of formal proof.
(c) The testimony of the complaining witness and any alleged victim may be received when available.
(d) Any statement or admission made by the child appearing before the community arbitrator or the community arbitration panel relating to the offense for which he or she was cited is privileged and may not be used as evidence against the child either in a subsequent juvenile proceeding or in any subsequent civil or criminal action.
(e) If a child fails to appear on the original hearing date, the matter shall be referred back to the juvenile probation officer who shall consult with the state attorney regarding the filing of formal juvenile proceedings.
(6) DISPOSITION OF CASES.
(a) Subsequent to any hearing held as provided in subsection (5), the community arbitrator or community arbitration panel may:
1. Recommend that the state attorney decline to prosecute the child.
2. Issue a warning to the child or the child’s family and recommend that the state attorney decline to prosecute the child.
3. Refer the child for placement in a community-based nonresidential program.
4. Refer the child or the family to community counseling.
5. Refer the child to a safety and education program related to delinquent children.
6. Refer the child to a work program related to delinquent children and require up to 100 hours of work by the child.
7. Refer the child to a nonprofit organization for volunteer work in the community and require up to 100 hours of work by the child.
8. Order restitution in money or in kind in a case involving property damage; however, the amount of restitution shall not exceed the amount of actual damage to property.
9. Continue the case for further investigation.
10. Require the child to undergo urinalysis monitoring.
11. Impose any other restrictions or sanctions that are designed to encourage responsible and acceptable behavior and are agreed upon by the participants of the community arbitration proceedings.

The community arbitrator or community arbitration panel shall determine an appropriate timeframe in which the disposition must be completed. The community arbitrator or community arbitration panel shall report the disposition of the case to the juvenile probation officer.

(b) Any person or agency to whom a child is referred pursuant to this section shall periodically report the progress of the child to the referring community arbitrator or community arbitration panel in the manner prescribed by such arbitrator or panel.
(c) Any child who is referred by the community arbitrator or community arbitration panel to a work program related to delinquent children or to a nonprofit organization for volunteer work in the community, and who is also ordered to pay restitution to the victim, may be paid a reasonable hourly wage for work, to the extent that funds are specifically appropriated or authorized for this purpose; provided, however, that such payments shall not, in total, exceed the amount of restitution ordered and that such payments shall be turned over by the child to the victim.
(d) If a child consents to an informal resolution and, in the presence of the parent or legal custodian or guardian and the community arbitrator or community arbitration panel, agrees to comply with any disposition suggested or ordered by such arbitrator or panel and subsequently fails to abide by the terms of such agreement, the community arbitrator or community arbitration panel may, after a careful review of the circumstances, forward the case back to the juvenile probation officer, who shall consult with the state attorney regarding the filing of formal juvenile proceedings.
(7) REVIEW.Any child or his or her parent or legal custodian or guardian who is dissatisfied with the disposition provided by the community arbitrator or the community arbitration panel may request a review of the disposition to the appropriate juvenile probation officer within 15 days after the community arbitration hearing. Upon receipt of the request for review, the juvenile probation officer shall consult with the state attorney who shall consider the request for review and may file formal juvenile proceedings or take such other action as may be warranted.
(8) FUNDING.Funding for the provisions of community arbitration may be provided through appropriations from the state or from local governments, through federal or other public or private grants, through any appropriations as authorized by the county participating in the community arbitration program, and through donations.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 48, ch. 97-238; s. 20, ch. 98-207; s. 133, ch. 99-3; s. 27, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.026; s. 985.304.
985.17 Prevention services.
(1) The Legislature finds that prevention services decrease recidivism by addressing the needs of at-risk youth and their families, preventing further involvement of such youth in the juvenile justice system, protecting the safety of the public, and facilitating successful reentry of at-risk youth into the community. To assist with decreasing recidivism, the department’s prevention services shall strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors using tested and effective approaches.
(2) A goal of the department’s prevention services shall be to develop the capacity for local communities to serve their youth.
(a) The department shall engage faith and community-based organizations to provide a full range of voluntary programs and services to prevent and reduce juvenile delinquency, including, but not limited to, chaplaincy services, crisis intervention counseling, mentoring, and tutoring.
(b) The department shall establish volunteer coordinators in each circuit and encourage the recruitment of volunteers to serve as mentors for youth in department services.
(c) The department shall promote the sale of the Invest in Children license plate to help fund programs and services to prevent juvenile delinquency. The department shall allocate money for programs and services within each county based on that county’s proportionate share of the license plate annual use fees collected by the county.
(3) The department’s prevention services for youth at risk of becoming delinquent should:
(a) Focus on preventing initial or further involvement of such youth in the juvenile justice system by including services such as literacy services, gender-specific programming, recreational services, and after-school services, and should include targeted services to troubled, truant, ungovernable, abused, trafficked, or runaway youth. To decrease the likelihood that a youth will commit a delinquent act, the department should use mentoring and may provide specialized services addressing the strengthening of families, job training, and substance abuse.
(b) Address the multiple needs of such youth in order to decrease the prevalence of disproportionate minority representation in the juvenile justice system.
(4) The department shall expend funds related to the prevention services in a manner consistent with the policies expressed in ss. 984.02 and 985.01 and in a manner that maximizes accountability to the public and ensures the documentation of outcomes.
(a) As a condition of receipt of state funds, all entities that receive or use state moneys to fund prevention services through contracts with the department or grants from any entity dispersed by the department shall:
1. Design the programs providing such services to further one or more of the following strategies:
a. Encouraging youth to attend and succeed in school, which may include special assistance and tutoring to address deficiencies in academic performance and collecting outcome data to reveal the number of days youth attended school while participating in the program.
b. Engaging youth in productive and wholesome activities during nonschool hours that build positive character, instill positive values, and enhance educational experiences.
c. Encouraging youth to avoid the use of violence.
d. Assisting youth in acquiring the skills needed to find meaningful employment, which may include assisting the youth in finding a suitable employer.
2. Provide the department with demographic information, dates of services, and types of interventions received by each youth.
(b) The department shall monitor output and outcome measures for each program strategy in paragraph (a) and annually report the outputs and outcomes in the Comprehensive Accountability Report as provided in s. 985.632.
(c) The department shall monitor all state-funded programs that receive or use state moneys to fund the prevention services through contracts or grants with the department for compliance with all provisions in the contracts and grants.
History.s. 13, ch. 2014-162.
PART IV
EXAMINATIONS AND EVALUATIONS
985.18 Medical, psychiatric, psychological, substance abuse, and educational examination and treatment.
985.185 Evaluations for disposition.
985.19 Incompetency in juvenile delinquency cases.
985.195 Transfer to other treatment services.
985.18 Medical, psychiatric, psychological, substance abuse, and educational examination and treatment.
(1) After a detention petition or a petition for delinquency has been filed, the court may order the child named in the petition to be examined by a physician. The court may also order the child to be evaluated by a psychiatrist or a psychologist, by a district school board educational needs assessment team, or, if a developmental disability is suspected or alleged, by a developmental disabilities diagnostic and evaluation team with the Agency for Persons with Disabilities. If it is necessary to place a child in a residential facility for such evaluation, the criteria and procedures established in chapter 393, chapter 394, or chapter 397, whichever is applicable, shall be used.
(2) If a child has been found to have committed a delinquent act, or before such finding with the consent of any parent or legal custodian of the child, the court may order the child to be treated by a physician. The court may also order the child to receive mental health, substance abuse, or intellectual disability services from a psychiatrist, psychologist, or other appropriate service provider. If it is necessary to place the child in a residential facility for such services, the procedures and criteria established in chapter 393, chapter 394, or chapter 397, as applicable, must be used. After a child has been adjudicated delinquent, if an educational needs assessment by the district school board or the Department of Children and Families has been conducted, the court shall order the report included in the child’s court record in lieu of a new assessment. For purposes of this section, an educational needs assessment includes, but is not limited to, reports of intelligence and achievement tests, screening for learning and other disabilities, and screening for the need for alternative education.
(3) When any child is detained pending a hearing, the person in charge of the detention center or facility or his or her designated representative may authorize a triage examination as a preliminary screening device to determine if the child is in need of medical care or isolation or provide or cause to be provided such medical or surgical services as may be deemed necessary by a physician.
(4) Whenever a child found to have committed a delinquent act is placed by order of the court within the care and custody or under the supervision of the Department of Juvenile Justice and it appears to the court that there is no parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis who is capable of authorizing or willing to authorize medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care or treatment for the child, the court may, after due notice to the parent, guardian, or person standing in loco parentis, if any, order that a representative of the Department of Juvenile Justice may authorize such medical, surgical, dental, or other remedial care for the child by licensed practitioners as may from time to time appear necessary.
(5) Upon specific appropriation, the department may obtain comprehensive evaluations, including, but not limited to, medical, academic, psychological, behavioral, sociological, and vocational needs of a youth with multiple arrests for all level criminal acts or a youth committed to a minimum-risk or low-risk commitment program.
(6) A physician must be immediately notified by the person taking the child into custody or the person having custody if there are indications of physical injury or illness, or the child shall be taken to the nearest available hospital for emergency care. A child may be provided mental health, substance abuse, or intellectual disability services in emergency situations pursuant to chapter 393, chapter 394, or chapter 397, as applicable. After a hearing, the court may order the custodial parent or parents, guardian, or other custodian, if found able to do so, to reimburse the county or state for the expense involved in such emergency treatment or care.
(7) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to eliminate the right of the parents or the child to consent to examination or treatment for the child, except that consent of a parent shall not be required if the physician determines there is an injury or illness requiring immediate treatment and the child consents to such treatment or an ex parte court order is obtained authorizing treatment.
(8) Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the permanent sterilization of any child unless such sterilization is the result of or incidental to medically necessary treatment to protect or preserve the life of the child.
(9) Except as provided in this section, nothing in this section shall be deemed to preclude a court from ordering services or treatment to be provided to a child by a duly accredited practitioner who relies solely on spiritual means for healing in accordance with the tenets and practices of a church or religious organization, when requested by the child.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 15, ch. 93-39; s. 34, ch. 94-209; s. 1345, ch. 95-147; s. 42, ch. 95-267; s. 5, ch. 96-398; s. 3, ch. 97-101; ss. 23, 32, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 98-207; s. 4, ch. 2005-263; s. 28, ch. 2006-120; s. 67, ch. 2006-227; s. 48, ch. 2013-162; s. 349, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Subsections (1)-(4), (6)-(9) former s. 39.046; s. 985.224. Subsection (5) former s. 39.044(10)(e); s. 985.215(10)(e).
985.185 Evaluations for disposition.
(1) A comprehensive evaluation for physical health, mental health, substance abuse, academic, educational, or vocational problems shall be ordered for any child for whom a residential commitment disposition is anticipated or recommended by an officer of the court or by the department.
(2) Prior to making a final disposition of the case, the court may order additional evaluations and studies to be performed by the department, by the county school system, or by any social, psychological, or psychiatric agencies of the state. The court shall order the educational needs assessment completed under s. 985.18(2) to be included in the assessment and predisposition report.
History.s. 37, ch. 97-238; s. 29, ch. 2000-135; s. 29, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.229(1), (2).
985.19 Incompetency in juvenile delinquency cases.
(1) If, at any time prior to or during a delinquency case, the court has reason to believe that the child named in the petition may be incompetent to proceed with the hearing, the court on its own motion may, or on the motion of the child’s attorney or state attorney must, stay all proceedings and order an evaluation of the child’s mental condition.
(a) Any motion questioning the child’s competency to proceed must be served upon the child’s attorney, the state attorney, the attorneys representing the Department of Juvenile Justice, and the attorneys representing the Department of Children and Families. Thereafter, any motion, notice of hearing, order, or other legal pleading relating to the child’s competency to proceed with the hearing must be served upon the child’s attorney, the state attorney, the attorneys representing the Department of Juvenile Justice, and the attorneys representing the Department of Children and Families.
(b) All determinations of competency shall be made at a hearing, with findings of fact based on an evaluation of the child’s mental condition made by not less than two nor more than three experts appointed by the court. The basis for the determination of incompetency must be specifically stated in the evaluation. In addition, a recommendation as to whether residential or nonresidential treatment or training is required must be included in the evaluation. Experts appointed by the court to determine the mental condition of a child shall be allowed reasonable fees for services rendered. State employees may be paid expenses pursuant to s. 112.061. The fees shall be taxed as costs in the case.
(c) All court orders determining incompetency must include specific written findings by the court as to the nature of the incompetency and whether the child requires secure or nonsecure treatment or training environments.
(d) For incompetency evaluations related to mental illness, the Department of Children and Families shall maintain and annually provide the courts with a list of available mental health professionals who have completed a training program approved by the Department of Children and Families to perform the evaluations.
(e) For incompetency evaluations related to intellectual disability or autism, the court shall order the Agency for Persons with Disabilities to examine the child to determine if the child meets the definition of “intellectual disability” or “autism” in s. 393.063 and, if so, whether the child is competent to proceed with delinquency proceedings.
(f) A child is competent to proceed if the child has sufficient present ability to consult with counsel with a reasonable degree of rational understanding and the child has a rational and factual understanding of the present proceedings. The report must address the child’s capacity to:
1. Appreciate the charges or allegations against the child.
2. Appreciate the range and nature of possible penalties that may be imposed in the proceedings against the child, if applicable.
3. Understand the adversarial nature of the legal process.
4. Disclose to counsel facts pertinent to the proceedings at issue.
5. Display appropriate courtroom behavior.
6. Testify relevantly.
(g) Immediately upon the filing of the court order finding a child incompetent to proceed, the clerk of the court shall notify the Department of Children and Families and the Agency for Persons with Disabilities and fax or hand deliver to the department and to the agency a referral packet that includes, at a minimum, the court order, the charging documents, the petition, and the court-appointed evaluator’s reports.
(h) After placement of the child in the appropriate setting, the Department of Children and Families in consultation with the Agency for Persons with Disabilities, as appropriate, must, within 30 days after placement of the child, prepare and submit to the court a treatment or training plan for the child’s restoration of competency. A copy of the plan must be served upon the child’s attorney, the state attorney, and the attorneys representing the Department of Juvenile Justice.
(2) A child who is adjudicated incompetent to proceed, and who has committed a delinquent act or violation of law, either of which would be a felony if committed by an adult, must be committed to the Department of Children and Families for treatment or training. A child who has been adjudicated incompetent to proceed because of age or immaturity, or for any reason other than for mental illness, intellectual disability, or autism, must not be committed to the department or to the Department of Children and Families for restoration-of-competency treatment or training services. For purposes of this section, a child who has committed a delinquent act or violation of law, either of which would be a misdemeanor if committed by an adult, may not be committed to the department or to the Department of Children and Families for restoration-of-competency treatment or training services.
(3) If the court finds that a child has mental illness, intellectual disability, or autism and adjudicates the child incompetent to proceed, the court must also determine whether the child meets the criteria for secure placement. A child may be placed in a secure facility or program if the court makes a finding by clear and convincing evidence that:
(a) The child has mental illness, intellectual disability, or autism and because of the mental illness, intellectual disability, or autism:
1. The child is manifestly incapable of surviving with the help of willing and responsible family or friends, including available alternative services, and without treatment or training the child is likely to suffer from neglect or refuse to care for self, and such neglect or refusal poses a real and present threat of substantial harm to the child’s well-being; or
2. There is a substantial likelihood that in the near future the child will inflict serious bodily harm on self or others, as evidenced by recent behavior causing, attempting, or threatening such harm; and
(b) All available less restrictive alternatives, including treatment or training in community residential facilities or community settings which would offer an opportunity for improvement of the child’s condition, are inappropriate.
(4) A child who is determined to have mental illness, intellectual disability, or autism, who has been adjudicated incompetent to proceed, and who meets the criteria set forth in subsection (3), must be committed to the Department of Children and Families and receive treatment or training in a secure facility or program that is the least restrictive alternative consistent with public safety. Any placement of a child to a secure residential program must be separate from adult forensic programs. If the child attains competency, custody, case management, and supervision of the child shall be transferred to the department in order to continue delinquency proceedings; however, the court retains authority to order the Department of Children and Families to provide continued treatment or training to maintain competency.
(a) A child adjudicated incompetent due to intellectual disability or autism may be ordered into a secure program or facility designated by the Department of Children and Families for children who have intellectual disabilities or autism.
(b) A child adjudicated incompetent due to mental illness may be ordered into a secure program or facility designated by the Department of Children and Families for children having mental illnesses.
(c) If a child is placed in a secure residential facility, the department shall provide transportation to the secure residential facility for admission and from the secure residential facility upon discharge.
(d) The purpose of the treatment or training is the restoration of the child’s competency to proceed.
(e) The service provider must file a written report with the court pursuant to the applicable Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure within 6 months after the date of commitment, or at the end of any period of extended treatment or training, and at any time the Department of Children and Families, through its service provider, determines the child has attained competency or no longer meets the criteria for secure placement, or at such shorter intervals as ordered by the court. A copy of a written report evaluating the child’s competency must be filed by the provider with the court and with the state attorney, the child’s attorney, the department, and the Department of Children and Families.
(5)(a) If a child is determined to be incompetent to proceed, the court shall retain jurisdiction of the child for up to 2 years after the date of the order of incompetency, with reviews at least every 6 months to determine competency.
(b) Whenever the provider files a report with the court informing the court that the child will never become competent to proceed, the Department of Children and Families will develop a discharge plan for the child prior to any hearing determining whether the child will ever become competent to proceed and send the plan to the court, the state attorney, the child’s attorney, and the attorneys representing the Department of Juvenile Justice. The provider will continue to provide services to the child until the court issues the order finding the child will never become competent to proceed.
(c) If the court determines at any time that the child will never become competent to proceed, the court may dismiss the delinquency petition. If, at the end of the 2-year period following the date of the order of incompetency, the child has not attained competency and there is no evidence that the child will attain competency within a year, the court must dismiss the delinquency petition. If appropriate, the court may order that proceedings under chapter 393 or chapter 394 be instituted. Such proceedings must be instituted not less than 60 days prior to the dismissal of the delinquency petition.
(6)(a) If a child is determined to have mental illness, intellectual disability, or autism and is found to be incompetent to proceed but does not meet the criteria set forth in subsection (3), the court shall commit the child to the Department of Children and Families and order the Department of Children and Families to provide appropriate treatment and training in the community. The purpose of the treatment or training is the restoration of the child’s competency to proceed.
(b) All court-ordered treatment or training must be the least restrictive alternative that is consistent with public safety. Any placement by the Department of Children and Families to a residential program must be separate from adult forensic programs.
(c) If a child is ordered to receive competency restoration services, the services shall be provided by the Department of Children and Families. The department shall continue to provide case management services to the child and receive notice of the competency status of the child.
(d) The service provider must file a written report with the court pursuant to the applicable Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure, not later than 6 months after the date of commitment, at the end of any period of extended treatment or training, and at any time the service provider determines the child has attained competency or will never attain competency, or at such shorter intervals as ordered by the court. A copy of a written report evaluating the child’s competency must be filed by the provider with the court, the state attorney, the child’s attorney, the Department of Children and Families, and the department.
(7) The provisions of this section shall be implemented only subject to specific appropriation.
History.s. 4, ch. 96-398; s. 164, ch. 97-101; s. 31, ch. 97-238; s. 16, ch. 98-207; s. 72, ch. 2000-139; s. 30, ch. 2006-120; s. 24, ch. 2006-195; s. 49, ch. 2013-162; s. 350, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 39.0517; s. 985.223.
985.195 Transfer to other treatment services.Any child committed to the department may be transferred to intellectual disability, mental health, or substance abuse treatment facilities for diagnosis and evaluation pursuant to chapter 393, chapter 394, or chapter 397, as applicable, for up to 90 days.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 17, ch. 93-39; s. 78, ch. 97-238; s. 30, ch. 2006-120; s. 50, ch. 2013-162.
Note.Former s. 39.063; s. 985.418.
PART V
DETENTION
985.24 Use of detention; prohibitions.
985.245 Risk assessment instrument.
985.25 Detention intake.
985.255 Detention criteria; detention hearing.
985.26 Length of detention.
985.265 Detention transfer and release; education; adult jails.
985.27 Postdisposition detention while awaiting residential commitment placement.
985.275 Detention of escapee or absconder on authority of the department.
985.24 Use of detention; prohibitions.
(1) All determinations and court orders regarding the use of detention care shall be based primarily upon findings that the child:
(a) Presents a substantial risk of not appearing at a subsequent hearing;
(b) Presents a substantial risk of inflicting bodily harm on others as evidenced by recent behavior, including the illegal possession of a firearm;
(c) Presents a history of committing a property offense prior to adjudication, disposition, or placement;
(d) Has committed contempt of court by:
1. Intentionally disrupting the administration of the court;
2. Intentionally disobeying a court order; or
3. Engaging in a punishable act or speech in the court’s presence which shows disrespect for the authority and dignity of the court; or
(e) Requests protection from imminent bodily harm.
(2) A child alleged to have committed a delinquent act or violation of law may not be placed into secure or nonsecure detention care for any of the following reasons:
(a) To allow a parent to avoid his or her legal responsibility.
(b) To permit more convenient administrative access to the child.
(c) To facilitate further interrogation or investigation.
(d) Due to a lack of more appropriate facilities.
(3) A child alleged to be dependent under chapter 39 may not, under any circumstances, be placed into secure detention care.
(4) The department may, within its existing resources, develop nonsecure, nonresidential evening reporting centers as an alternative to placing a child in secure detention. Evening reporting centers may be collocated with a juvenile assessment center. If established, evening reporting centers shall serve children and families who are awaiting a child’s court hearing and, at a minimum, operate during the afternoon and evening hours to provide a highly structured program of supervision. Evening reporting centers may also provide academic tutoring, counseling, family engagement programs, and other activities.
(5) The department shall continue to identify alternatives to secure detention care and shall develop such alternatives and annually submit them to the Legislature for authorization and appropriation.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 3, ch. 93-408; ss. 29, 30, ch. 94-209; ss. 21, 22, ch. 97-238; s. 80, ch. 98-280; s. 31, ch. 2006-120; s. 14, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Subsection (1) former s. 39.042(1); s. 985.213(1). Subsections (2), (3) former s. 39.043; s. 985.214. Subsection (4) former s. 39.042(4); s. 985.213(4).
985.245 Risk assessment instrument.
(1) All determinations and court orders regarding placement of a child into detention care shall comply with all requirements and criteria provided in this part and shall be based on a risk assessment of the child, unless the child is placed into detention care as provided in s. 985.255(2).
(2)(a) The risk assessment instrument for detention care placement determinations and orders shall be developed by the department in agreement with representatives appointed by the following associations: the Conference of Circuit Judges of Florida, the Prosecuting Attorneys Association, the Public Defenders Association, the Florida Sheriffs Association, and the Florida Association of Chiefs of Police. Each association shall appoint two individuals, one representing an urban area and one representing a rural area. The parties involved shall evaluate and revise the risk assessment instrument as is considered necessary using the method for revision as agreed by the parties.
(b) The risk assessment instrument shall take into consideration, but need not be limited to, prior history of failure to appear, prior offenses, offenses committed pending adjudication, any unlawful possession of a firearm, theft of a motor vehicle or possession of a stolen motor vehicle, and probation status at the time the child is taken into custody. The risk assessment instrument shall also take into consideration appropriate aggravating and mitigating circumstances, and shall be designed to target a narrower population of children than s. 985.255. The risk assessment instrument shall also include any information concerning the child’s history of abuse and neglect. The risk assessment shall indicate whether detention care is warranted, and, if detention care is warranted, whether the child should be placed into secure or nonsecure detention care.
(3) If, at the detention hearing, the court finds a material error in the scoring of the risk assessment instrument, the court may amend the score to reflect factual accuracy.
(4) For a child who is under the supervision of the department through probation, nonsecure detention, conditional release, postcommitment probation, or commitment and who is charged with committing a new offense, the risk assessment instrument may be completed and scored based on the underlying charge for which the child was placed under the supervision of the department and the new offense.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 7, ch. 92-287; s. 21, ch. 93-230; s. 3, ch. 93-408; s. 29, ch. 94-209; s. 9, ch. 95-267; s. 21, ch. 97-238; s. 79, ch. 98-280; s. 8, ch. 2000-134; s. 18, ch. 2001-125; s. 16, ch. 2002-55; s. 32, ch. 2006-120; s. 15, ch. 2014-162; s. 12, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.042(2); s. 985.213(2).
985.25 Detention intake.
(1) The department shall receive custody of a child who has been taken into custody from the law enforcement agency or court and shall review the facts in the law enforcement report or probable cause affidavit and make such further inquiry as may be necessary to determine whether detention care is appropriate.
(a) During the period of time from the taking of the child into custody to the date of the detention hearing, the initial decision as to the child’s placement into detention care shall be made by the department under ss. 985.24 and 985.245(1).
(b) The department shall base the decision whether to place the child into detention care on an assessment of risk in accordance with the risk assessment instrument and procedures developed by the department under s. 985.245, except that a child shall be placed in secure detention care until the child’s detention hearing if the child meets the criteria specified in s. 985.255(1)(j), is charged with possessing or discharging a firearm on school property in violation of s. 790.115, or has been taken into custody on three or more separate occasions within a 60-day period.
(c) If the final score on the child’s risk assessment instrument indicates detention care is appropriate, but the department otherwise determines the child should be released, the department shall contact the state attorney, who may authorize release.
(d) If the final score on the risk assessment instrument indicates detention is not appropriate, the child may be released by the department in accordance with ss. 985.115 and 985.13.

Under no circumstances shall the department or the state attorney or law enforcement officer authorize the detention of any child in a jail or other facility intended or used for the detention of adults, without an order of the court.

(2) The arresting law enforcement agency shall complete and present its investigation of an offense to the appropriate state attorney’s office within 8 days after placement of the child in secure detention. The investigation shall include, but is not limited to, police reports and supplemental police reports, witness statements, and evidence collection documents. The failure of a law enforcement agency to complete and present its investigation within 8 days shall not entitle a juvenile to be released from secure detention or to a dismissal of any charges.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 31, ch. 94-209; s. 1343, ch. 95-147; s. 10, ch. 95-267; s. 23, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 98-207; s. 4, ch. 99-284; s. 9, ch. 2000-134; s. 33, ch. 2006-120; s. 16, ch. 2014-162; s. 2, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Subsection (1) former s. 39.044(1); s. 985.215(1). Subsection (2) former s. 985.215(5)(b).
985.255 Detention criteria; detention hearing.
(1) Subject to s. 985.25(1), a child taken into custody and placed into detention care shall be given a hearing within 24 hours after being taken into custody. At the hearing, the court may order continued detention if:
(a) The child is alleged to be an escapee from a residential commitment program; or an absconder from a nonresidential commitment program, a probation program, or conditional release supervision; or is alleged to have escaped while being lawfully transported to or from a residential commitment program.
(b) The child is wanted in another jurisdiction for an offense which, if committed by an adult, would be a felony.
(c) The child is charged with a delinquent act or violation of law and requests in writing through legal counsel to be detained for protection from an imminent physical threat to his or her personal safety.
(d) The child is charged with committing an offense of domestic violence as defined in s. 741.28 and is detained as provided in subsection (2).
(e) The child is charged with possession of or discharging a firearm on school property in violation of s. 790.115 or the illegal possession of a firearm.
(f) The child is charged with a capital felony, a life felony, a felony of the first degree, a felony of the second degree that does not involve a violation of chapter 893, or a felony of the third degree that is also a crime of violence, including any such offense involving the use or possession of a firearm.
(g) The child is charged with any second degree or third degree felony involving a violation of chapter 893 or any third degree felony that is not also a crime of violence, and the child:
1. Has a record of failure to appear at court hearings after being properly notified in accordance with the Rules of Juvenile Procedure;
2. Has a record of law violations prior to court hearings;
3. Has already been detained or has been released and is awaiting final disposition of the case;
4. Has a record of violent conduct resulting in physical injury to others; or
5. Is found to have been in possession of a firearm.
(h) The child is alleged to have violated the conditions of the child’s probation or conditional release supervision. However, a child detained under this paragraph may be held only in a consequence unit as provided in s. 985.439. If a consequence unit is not available, the child shall be placed on nonsecure detention with electronic monitoring.
(i) The child is detained on a judicial order for failure to appear and has previously willfully failed to appear, after proper notice:
1. For an adjudicatory hearing on the same case regardless of the results of the risk assessment instrument; or
2. At two or more court hearings of any nature on the same case regardless of the results of the risk assessment instrument.

A child may be held in secure detention for up to 72 hours in advance of the next scheduled court hearing pursuant to this paragraph. The child’s failure to keep the clerk of court and defense counsel informed of a current and valid mailing address where the child will receive notice to appear at court proceedings does not provide an adequate ground for excusal of the child’s nonappearance at the hearings.

(j) The child is a prolific juvenile offender. A child is a prolific juvenile offender if the child:
1. Is charged with a delinquent act that would be a felony if committed by an adult;
2. Has been adjudicated or had adjudication withheld for a felony offense, or delinquent act that would be a felony if committed by an adult, before the charge under subparagraph 1.; and
3. In addition to meeting the requirements of subparagraphs 1. and 2., has five or more of any of the following, at least three of which must have been for felony offenses or delinquent acts that would have been felonies if committed by an adult:
a. An arrest event for which a disposition, as defined in s. 985.26, has not been entered;
b. An adjudication; or
c. An adjudication withheld.

As used in this subparagraph, the term “arrest event” means an arrest or referral for one or more criminal offenses or delinquent acts arising out of the same episode, act, or transaction.

(2) A child who is charged with committing an offense that is classified as an act of domestic violence as defined in s. 741.28 and whose risk assessment instrument indicates secure detention is not appropriate may be held in secure detention if the court makes specific written findings that:
(a) Respite care for the child is not available.
(b) It is necessary to place the child in secure detention in order to protect the victim from injury.

The child may not be held in secure detention under this subsection for more than 48 hours unless ordered by the court. After 48 hours, the court shall hold a hearing if the state attorney or victim requests that secure detention be continued. The child may continue to be held in detention care if the court makes a specific, written finding that detention care is necessary to protect the victim from injury. However, the child may not be held in detention care beyond the time limits set forth in this section or s. 985.26.

(3)(a) The purpose of the detention hearing required under subsection (1) is to determine the existence of probable cause that the child has committed the delinquent act or violation of law that he or she is charged with and the need for continued detention. Unless a child is detained under paragraph (1)(d) or paragraph (1)(e), the court shall use the results of the risk assessment performed by the department and, based on the criteria in subsection (1), shall determine the need for continued detention. If the child is a prolific juvenile offender who is detained under s. 985.26(2)(c), the court shall use the results of the risk assessment performed by the department and the criteria in subsection (1) or subsection (2) only to determine whether the prolific juvenile offender should be held in secure detention.
(b) If the court orders a placement more restrictive than indicated by the results of the risk assessment instrument, the court shall state, in writing, clear and convincing reasons for such placement.
(c) Except as provided in s. 790.22(8) or s. 985.27, when a child is placed into detention care, or into a respite home or other placement pursuant to a court order following a hearing, the court order must include specific instructions that direct the release of the child from such placement no later than 5 p.m. on the last day of the detention period specified in s. 985.26 or s. 985.27, whichever is applicable, unless the requirements of such applicable provision have been met or an order of continuance has been granted under s. 985.26(4). If the court order does not include a release date, the release date shall be requested from the court on the same date that the child is placed in detention care. If a subsequent hearing is needed to provide additional information to the court for safety planning, the initial order placing the child in detention care shall reflect the next detention review hearing, which shall be held within 3 calendar days after the child’s initial detention placement.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 4, ch. 92-79; s. 6, ch. 92-287; s. 31, ch. 94-209; s. 1343, ch. 95-147; s. 10, ch. 95-267; s. 5, ch. 96-398; s. 23, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 98-207; s. 4, ch. 99-284; s. 9, ch. 2000-134; s. 24, ch. 2000-135; s. 37, ch. 2001-64; s. 19, ch. 2001-125; s. 17, ch. 2002-55; s. 4, ch. 2005-263; s. 34, ch. 2006-120; s. 17, ch. 2014-162; ss. 3, 13, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.044(2); s. 985.215(2).
985.26 Length of detention.
(1) A child may not be placed into or held in detention care for longer than 24 hours unless the court orders such detention care, and the order includes specific instructions that direct the release of the child from such detention care, in accordance with s. 985.255. The order shall be a final order, reviewable by appeal under s. 985.534 and the Florida Rules of Appellate Procedure. Appeals of such orders shall take precedence over other appeals and other pending matters.
(2)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) or paragraph (c), a child may not be held in detention care under a special detention order for more than 21 days unless an adjudicatory hearing for the case has been commenced in good faith by the court.
(b) Upon good cause being shown that the nature of the charge requires additional time for the prosecution or defense of the case, the court may extend the length of detention for an additional 9 days if the child is charged with an offense that would be, if committed by an adult, a capital felony, a life felony, a felony of the first degree, or a felony of the second degree involving violence against any individual.
(c) A prolific juvenile offender under s. 985.255(1)(j) shall be placed on nonsecure detention care with electronic monitoring or in secure detention care under a special detention order until disposition. If secure detention care is ordered by the court, it must be authorized under this part and may not exceed:
1. Twenty-one days unless an adjudicatory hearing for the case has been commenced in good faith by the court or the period is extended by the court pursuant to paragraph (b); or
2. Fifteen days after the entry of an order of adjudication.

As used in this paragraph, the term “disposition” means a declination to file under s. 985.15(1)(h), the entry of nolle prosequi for the charges, the filing of an indictment under s. 985.56 or an information under s. 985.557, a dismissal of the case, or an order of final disposition by the court.

(3) Except as provided in subsection (2), a child may not be held in detention care for more than 15 days following the entry of an order of adjudication.
(4)(a) The time limits in subsections (2) and (3) do not include periods of delay resulting from a continuance granted by the court for cause on motion of the child or his or her counsel or of the state. Upon the issuance of an order granting a continuance for cause on a motion by either the child, the child’s counsel, or the state, the court shall conduct a hearing at the end of each 72-hour period, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, to determine the need for continued detention of the child and the need for further continuance of proceedings for the child or the state.
(b) The period for nonsecure detention care under this section is tolled on the date that the department or a law enforcement officer alleges that the child has violated a condition of the child’s nonsecure detention care until the court enters a ruling on the violation. Notwithstanding the tolling of nonsecure detention care, the court retains jurisdiction over the child for a violation of a condition of nonsecure detention care during the tolling period. If the court finds that a child has violated his or her nonsecure detention care, the number of days that the child served in any type of detention care before commission of the violation shall be excluded from the time limits under subsections (2) and (3).
(5) A child who was not in secure detention at the time of the adjudicatory hearing, but for whom residential commitment is anticipated or recommended, may be placed under a special detention order for a period not to exceed 72 hours, excluding weekends and legal holidays, for the purpose of conducting a comprehensive evaluation as provided in s. 985.185. Motions for the issuance of such special detention order may be made subsequent to a finding of delinquency. Upon said motion, the court shall conduct a hearing to determine the appropriateness of such special detention order and shall order the least restrictive level of detention necessary to complete the comprehensive evaluation process that is consistent with public safety. Such special detention order may be extended for an additional 72 hours upon further order of the court.
(6) If a child is detained and a petition for delinquency is filed, the child shall be arraigned in accordance with the Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure within 48 hours after the filing of the petition for delinquency.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 31, ch. 94-209; s. 1343, ch. 95-147; s. 5, ch. 96-398; s. 23, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 98-207; s. 9, ch. 2000-134; s. 24, ch. 2000-135; s. 4, ch. 2005-263; s. 35, ch. 2006-120; s. 18, ch. 2014-162; s. 4, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Subsection (1) former s. 39.044(5)(a); s. 985.215(5)(a). Subsection (2) former s. 39.044(5)(b); s. 985.215(5)(c), (g). Subsection (3) former s. 39.044(5)(c); s. 985.215(5)(d). Subsection (4) former s. 39.044(5)(d); s. 985.215(5)(f). Subsection (5) former s. 985.215(5)(e). Subsection (6) former s. 39.044(7); s. 985.215(7).
985.265 Detention transfer and release; education; adult jails.
(1) If a child is detained under this part, the department may transfer the child from nonsecure detention care to secure detention care only if significantly changed circumstances warrant such transfer.
(2) If a child is on release status and not detained under this part, the child may be placed into detention care only pursuant to a court hearing in which the original risk assessment instrument and the newly discovered evidence or changed circumstances are introduced into evidence with a rescored risk assessment instrument.
(3)(a) When a juvenile sexual offender is placed in detention, detention staff shall provide appropriate monitoring and supervision to ensure the safety of other children in the facility.
(b) When a juvenile is released from secure detention or transferred to nonsecure detention, detention staff shall immediately notify the appropriate law enforcement agency, school personnel, and victim if the juvenile is charged with committing any of the following offenses or attempting to commit any of the following offenses:
1. Murder, under s. 782.04;
2. Sexual battery, under chapter 794;
3. Stalking, under s. 784.048; or
4. Domestic violence, as defined in s. 741.28.
(4)(a) While a child who is currently enrolled in school is in nonsecure detention care, the child shall continue to attend school unless otherwise ordered by the court.
(b) While a child is in secure detention care, the child shall receive education commensurate with his or her grade level and educational ability.
(5) The court shall order the delivery of a child to a jail or other facility intended or used for the detention of adults:
(a) When the child has been transferred or indicted for criminal prosecution as an adult under part X, except that the court may not order or allow a child alleged to have committed a misdemeanor who is being transferred for criminal prosecution pursuant to either s. 985.556 or s. 985.557 to be detained or held in a jail or other facility intended or used for the detention of adults; however, such child may be held temporarily in a detention facility; or
(b) When a child taken into custody in this state is wanted by another jurisdiction for prosecution as an adult.

The child shall be housed separately from adult inmates to prohibit a child from having regular contact with incarcerated adults, including trusties. “Regular contact” means sight and sound contact. Separation of children from adults shall permit no more than haphazard or accidental contact. The receiving jail or other facility shall contain a separate section for children and shall have an adequate staff to supervise and monitor the child’s activities at all times. Supervision and monitoring of children includes physical observation and documented checks by jail or receiving facility supervisory personnel at intervals not to exceed 10 minutes. This subsection does not prohibit placing two or more children in the same cell. Under no circumstances shall a child be placed in the same cell with an adult.

History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 3, ch. 93-408; ss. 29, 31, ch. 94-209; s. 1342, ch. 95-147; s. 2, ch. 95-266; s. 44, ch. 95-267; s. 5, ch. 96-398; ss. 21, 23, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 98-207; s. 36, ch. 2006-120; s. 19, ch. 2014-162; s. 105, ch. 2015-2; s. 23, ch. 2016-24; s. 31, ch. 2017-37; s. 16, ch. 2017-107; s. 5, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Subsections (1), (2), (3) former s. 39.044(8), (9), (11); s. 985.215(8), (9), (11). Subsection (4) former s. 39.042(3); s. 985.213(3). Subsection (5) former s. 39.044(4); s. 985.215(4).
985.27 Postdisposition detention while awaiting residential commitment placement.The court must place all children who are adjudicated and awaiting placement in a nonsecure, high-risk, or maximum-risk residential commitment program in secure detention care until the placement or commitment is accomplished.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 31, ch. 94-209; s. 42, ch. 95-267; s. 5, ch. 96-398; s. 23, ch. 97-238; s. 13, ch. 98-207; s. 9, ch. 2000-134; s. 5, ch. 2000-327; s. 19, ch. 2001-125; s. 4, ch. 2005-263; s. 37, ch. 2006-120; s. 20, ch. 2014-162; s. 6, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.044(10)(a)-(d); s. 985.215(10)(a)-(d), (f).
985.275 Detention of escapee or absconder on authority of the department.
(1) If an authorized agent of the department has reasonable grounds to believe that any delinquent child committed to the department has escaped from a residential commitment facility or from being lawfully transported thereto or therefrom, or has absconded from a nonresidential commitment facility, the agent shall notify law enforcement and, if the offense would require notification under chapter 960, notify the victim. The agent shall make every reasonable effort as permitted within existing resources provided to the department to locate the delinquent child, and the child may be returned to the facility or, if it is closer, to a detention center for return to the facility. However, a child may not be held in detention longer than 24 hours, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, unless a special order so directing is made by the judge after a detention hearing resulting in a finding that detention is required based on the criteria in s. 985.255. The order shall state the reasons for such finding. The reasons shall be reviewable by appeal or in habeas corpus proceedings in the district court of appeal.
(2) Any sheriff or other law enforcement officer, upon the request of the secretary of the department or duly authorized agent, shall take a child who has escaped from a residential commitment facility or from being lawfully transported thereto or therefrom, or has absconded from a nonresidential commitment facility, into custody and deliver the child to the appropriate juvenile probation officer.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 7, ch. 92-287; s. 54, ch. 94-209; s. 16, ch. 97-238; s. 9, ch. 98-207; s. 13, ch. 99-284; s. 3, ch. 2005-263; s. 38, ch. 2006-120; s. 21, ch. 2014-162; s. 14, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.064; s. 985.208.
PART VI
PETITION, ARRAIGNMENT,
AND ADJUDICATION
985.318 Petition.
985.319 Process and service.
985.325 Threatening or dismissing an employee prohibited.
985.331 Court and witness fees.
985.335 No answer to petition required.
985.345 Delinquency pretrial intervention programs.
985.35 Adjudicatory hearings; withheld adjudications; orders of adjudication.
985.318 Petition.
(1) All proceedings seeking a finding that a child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law shall be initiated by the state by the filing of a petition for delinquency by the state attorney.
(2) The petition shall be in writing and shall be signed by the state attorney under oath.
(3) The state attorney shall represent the state in all proceedings in which a petition alleges delinquency.
(4) When a petition has been filed and the child or his or her counsel has advised the state attorney that the truth of the allegations is admitted and that no contest is to be made of the allegations in the petition, the state attorney may request that the case be set for an adjudicatory hearing. If the child changes the plea at the adjudicatory hearing, the court shall continue the hearing to permit the state attorney to prepare and present the case for the state.
(5) The form of the petition and its contents shall be determined by rules of procedure adopted by the Supreme Court.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 14, ch. 93-230; s. 221, ch. 95-147; s. 26, ch. 97-238; s. 81, ch. 98-280; s. 36, ch. 99-284; s. 39, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.048; s. 985.218.
985.319 Process and service.
(1) Personal appearance of any person in a hearing before the court obviates the necessity of serving process on that person.
(2) Upon the filing of a petition containing allegations of facts which, if true, would establish that the child committed a delinquent act or violation of law, and upon the request of the petitioner, the clerk or deputy clerk shall issue a summons.
(3) The summons shall have a copy of the petition attached and shall require the person on whom it is served to appear for a hearing at a time and place specified. Except in cases of medical emergency, the time may not be less than 24 hours after service of the summons. If the child is not detained by an order of the court, the summons shall require the custodian of the child to produce the child at the said time and place.
(4) Law enforcement agencies shall act upon subpoenas received and serve process within 7 days after arraignment or as soon thereafter as is possible, except that no service shall be made on Sundays.
(5) The summons shall be directed to, and shall be served upon, the following persons:
(a) The child, in the same manner as an adult;
(b) The parents of the child; and
(c) Any legal custodians, actual custodians, guardians, and guardians ad litem of the child.
(6) If the petition alleges that the child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law and the judge deems it advisable to do so, under the criteria of s. 985.255, the judge may, by endorsement upon the summons and after the entry of an order in which valid reasons are specified, order the child to be taken into custody immediately, and in such case the person serving the summons shall immediately take the child into custody.
(7) If the identity or residence of the parents, custodians, or guardians of the child is unknown after a diligent search and inquiry, if the parents, custodians, or guardians are residents of a state other than Florida, or if the parents, custodians, or guardians evade service, the person who made the search and inquiry shall file in the case a certificate of those facts, and the court shall appoint a guardian ad litem for the child, if appropriate. If the parent, custodian, or guardian of the child fails to obey a summons, the court may, by endorsement upon the summons and after the entry of an order in which valid reasons are specified, order the parent, custodian, or guardian to be taken into custody immediately to show cause why the parent, guardian, or custodian should not be held in contempt for failing to obey the summons. The court may appoint a guardian ad litem for the child, if appropriate.
(8) Upon the application of the child or the state attorney, the clerk or deputy clerk shall issue, and the court on its own motion may issue, subpoenas requiring attendance and testimony of witnesses and production of records, documents, or other tangible objects at any hearing.
(9) All process and orders issued by the court shall be served or executed as other process and orders of the circuit court and, in addition, may be served or executed by authorized agents of the Department of Juvenile Justice at the department’s discretion.
(10) Subpoenas may be served within the state by any person over 18 years of age who is not a party to the proceeding.
(11) No fee shall be paid for service of any process or other papers by an agent of the department. If any process, orders, or other papers are served or executed by any sheriff, the sheriff’s fees shall be paid by the county.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 7, ch. 92-287; s. 39, ch. 94-209; s. 1347, ch. 95-147; s. 27, ch. 97-238; s. 11, ch. 2000-134; s. 40, ch. 2006-120; s. 15, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 39.049(1)-(6), (8)-(11); s. 985.219(1)-(7), (9)-(12).
985.325 Threatening or dismissing an employee prohibited.
(1) An employer, or the employer’s agent, may not dismiss from employment an employee who is summoned to appear before the court under s. 985.319 solely because of the nature of the summons or because the employee complies with the summons.
(2) If an employer, or the employer’s agent, threatens an employee with dismissal, or dismisses an employee, who is summoned to appear under s. 985.319, the court may hold the employer in contempt.
History.s. 40, ch. 94-209; s. 1348, ch. 95-147; s. 28, ch. 97-238; s. 41, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.0495; s. 985.22.
985.331 Court and witness fees.In any proceeding under this chapter, court fees shall not be charged against, nor witness fees allowed to, any party to a delinquency petition or any parent or legal guardian or custodian or child named in a summons. Other witnesses shall be paid the witness fees fixed by law.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 29, ch. 97-238; s. 42, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.073; s. 985.221.
985.335 No answer to petition required.No answer to the petition alleging that a child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law need be filed by any child or his or her parent, legal custodian, or guardian. Any matters which might be set forth in an answer or other pleading may be pleaded orally before the court. An answer admitting the allegations of the petition may be filed by the child joined by a parent or the child’s counsel. The answer must acknowledge that the child has been advised of the right to counsel, of the right to remain silent, and of the possible dispositions available to the court. It shall provide for a waiver of the adjudicatory hearing, a statement of consent to an order of adjudication, and an authorization for the court to proceed with a disposition hearing. Upon the filing of such an order, a disposition hearing shall be set at the earliest practicable time that will allow for the completion of the assessment and classification process resulting in the predisposition report.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 222, ch. 95-147; s. 30, ch. 97-238; s. 42, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.051; s. 985.222.
985.345 Delinquency pretrial intervention programs.
(1)(a) Notwithstanding any other law, a child who is charged with a felony of the second or third degree for purchase or possession of a controlled substance under chapter 893; tampering with evidence; solicitation for purchase of a controlled substance; or obtaining a prescription by fraud, and who has not previously been adjudicated for a felony, is eligible for voluntary admission into a delinquency pretrial substance abuse education and treatment intervention program, including a treatment-based drug court program established pursuant to s. 397.334, approved by the chief judge or alternative sanctions coordinator of the circuit to the extent that funded programs are available, for a period based on the program requirements and the treatment services that are suitable for the offender, upon motion of either party or the court’s own motion. However, if the state attorney believes that the facts and circumstances of the case suggest the child’s involvement in the dealing and selling of controlled substances, the court shall hold a preadmission hearing. If the state attorney establishes by a preponderance of the evidence at such hearing that the child was involved in the dealing and selling of controlled substances, the court shall deny the child’s admission into a delinquency pretrial intervention program.
(b) While enrolled in a delinquency pretrial intervention program authorized by this subsection, a child is subject to a coordinated strategy developed by a drug court team under s. 397.334(4). The coordinated strategy may include a protocol of sanctions that may be imposed upon the child for noncompliance with program rules. The protocol of sanctions may include, but is not limited to, placement in a substance abuse treatment program offered by a licensed service provider as defined in s. 397.311 or serving a period of secure detention under this chapter. The coordinated strategy must be provided in writing to the child before the child agrees to enter the pretrial treatment-based drug court program or other pretrial intervention program. A child whose charges are dismissed after successful completion of the treatment-based drug court program, if otherwise eligible, may have his or her arrest record and plea of nolo contendere to the dismissed charges expunged under s. 943.0585.
(c) At the end of the delinquency pretrial intervention period, the court shall consider the recommendation of the state attorney and the program administrator as to disposition of the pending charges. The court shall determine, by written finding, whether the child has successfully completed the delinquency pretrial intervention program. Notwithstanding the coordinated strategy developed by a drug court team pursuant to s. 397.334(4), if the court finds that the child has not successfully completed the delinquency pretrial intervention program, the court may order the child to continue in an education, treatment, or drug testing program if resources and funding are available or order that the charges revert to normal channels for prosecution. The court may dismiss the charges upon a finding that the child has successfully completed the delinquency pretrial intervention program.
(2)(a) Notwithstanding any other law, a child who has been identified as having a mental illness and who has not been previously adjudicated for a felony is eligible for voluntary admission into a delinquency pretrial mental health court intervention program, established pursuant to s. 394.47892, approved by the chief judge of the circuit, for a period to be determined by the court, based on the clinical needs of the child, upon motion of either party or the court’s own motion if the child is charged with:
1. A misdemeanor;
2. A nonviolent felony, as defined in s. 948.01(8);
3. Resisting an officer with violence under s. 843.01, if the law enforcement officer and state attorney consent to the child’s participation;
4. Battery on a law enforcement officer under s. 784.07, if the law enforcement officer and state attorney consent to the child’s participation; or
5. Aggravated assault, if the victim and state attorney consent to the child’s participation.
(b) At the end of the delinquency pretrial mental health court intervention period, the court shall consider the recommendation of the state attorney and the program administrator as to disposition of the pending charges. The court shall determine, by written finding, whether the child has successfully completed the program. If the court finds that the child has not successfully completed the program, the court may order the child to continue in an education, treatment, or monitoring program if resources and funding are available or order that the charges revert to normal channels for prosecution. The court may dismiss the charges upon a finding that the child has successfully completed the program.
(c) A child whose charges are dismissed after successful completion of the delinquency pretrial mental health court intervention program, if otherwise eligible, may have his or her criminal history record for such charges expunged under s. 943.0585.
(3) Any entity, whether public or private, providing pretrial substance abuse education, treatment intervention, drug testing, or a mental health court program under this section must contract with the county or appropriate governmental entity, and the terms of the contract must include, but need not be limited to, the requirements established for private entities under s. 948.15(3). It is the intent of the Legislature that public or private entities providing substance abuse education and treatment intervention programs involve the active participation of parents, schools, churches, businesses, law enforcement agencies, and the department or its contract providers.
History.s. 3, ch. 93-196; s. 37, ch. 94-209; s. 13, ch. 95-267; s. 50, ch. 97-238; s. 83, ch. 98-280; s. 10, ch. 2006-97; s. 42, ch. 2006-120; s. 8, ch. 2009-64; s. 20, ch. 2016-127.
Note.Former s. 39.0475; s. 985.306.
985.35 Adjudicatory hearings; withheld adjudications; orders of adjudication.
(1)(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), the adjudicatory hearing must be held as soon as practicable after the petition alleging that a child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law is filed and in accordance with the Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure; but reasonable delay for the purpose of investigation, discovery, or procuring counsel or witnesses shall be granted. If the child is being detained, the time limitations in s. 985.26(2) and (3) apply.
(b) If the child is a prolific juvenile offender under s. 985.255(1)(j), the adjudicatory hearing must be held within 45 days after the child is taken into custody unless a delay is requested by the child.
(2) Adjudicatory hearings shall be conducted without a jury by the court, applying in delinquency cases the rules of evidence in use in criminal cases; adjourning the hearings from time to time as necessary; and conducting a fundamentally fair hearing in language understandable, to the fullest extent practicable, to the child before the court.
(a) In a hearing on a petition alleging that a child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law, the evidence must establish the findings beyond a reasonable doubt.
(b) The child is entitled to the opportunity to introduce evidence and otherwise be heard in the child’s own behalf and to cross-examine witnesses.
(c) A child charged with a delinquent act or violation of law must be afforded all rights against self-incrimination. Evidence illegally seized or obtained may not be received to establish the allegations against the child.
(3) If the court finds that the child named in a petition has not committed a delinquent act or violation of law, it shall enter an order so finding and dismissing the case.
(4) If the court finds that the child named in the petition has committed a delinquent act or violation of law, it may, in its discretion, enter an order stating the facts upon which its finding is based but withholding adjudication of delinquency.
(a) Upon withholding adjudication of delinquency, the court may place the child in a probation program under the supervision of the department or under the supervision of any other person or agency specifically authorized and appointed by the court. The court may, as a condition of the program, impose as a penalty component restitution in money or in kind, community service, a curfew, urine monitoring, revocation or suspension of the driver license of the child, or other nonresidential punishment appropriate to the offense, and may impose as a rehabilitative component a requirement of participation in substance abuse treatment, or school or other educational program attendance.
(b) If the child is attending public school and the court finds that the victim or a sibling of the victim in the case was assigned to attend or is eligible to attend the same school as the child, the court order shall include a finding pursuant to the proceedings described in s. 985.455, regardless of whether adjudication is withheld.
(c) If the court later finds that the child has not complied with the rules, restrictions, or conditions of the community-based program, the court may, after a hearing to establish the lack of compliance, but without further evidence of the state of delinquency, enter an adjudication of delinquency and shall thereafter have full authority under this chapter to deal with the child as adjudicated.
(5) If the court finds that the child named in a petition has committed a delinquent act or violation of law, but elects not to proceed under subsection (4), it shall incorporate that finding in an order of adjudication of delinquency entered in the case, briefly stating the facts upon which the finding is made, and the court shall thereafter have full authority under this chapter to deal with the child as adjudicated.
(6) Except as the term “conviction” is used in chapter 322, and except for use in a subsequent proceeding under this chapter, an adjudication of delinquency by a court with respect to any child who has committed a delinquent act or violation of law shall not be deemed a conviction; nor shall the child be deemed to have been found guilty or to be a criminal by reason of that adjudication; nor shall that adjudication operate to impose upon the child any of the civil disabilities ordinarily imposed by or resulting from conviction or to disqualify or prejudice the child in any civil service application or appointment, with the exception of the use of records of proceedings under this chapter as provided in s. 985.045(4).
(7) An adjudication of delinquency for an offense classified as a felony shall disqualify a person from lawfully possessing a firearm until such person reaches 24 years of age, unless the person’s criminal history record for that offense has been expunged pursuant to s. 943.0515(1)(b).
History.s. 36, ch. 97-238; s. 38, ch. 99-284; s. 28, ch. 2000-135; s. 39, ch. 2001-64; s. 22, ch. 2001-125; s. 43, ch. 2006-120; s. 7, ch. 2017-164.
Note.Former s. 985.228.
PART VII
DISPOSITION; POSTDISPOSITION
985.43 Predisposition reports; other evaluations.
985.433 Disposition hearings in delinquency cases.
985.435 Probation and postcommitment probation; community service.
985.437 Restitution.
985.439 Violation of probation or postcommitment probation.
985.441 Commitment.
985.442 Form of commitment; certified copy of charge attached.
985.45 Liability and remuneration for work.
985.455 Other dispositional issues.
985.46 Conditional release.
985.461 Transition to adulthood.
985.465 Juvenile correctional facilities or juvenile prison.
985.475 Juvenile sexual offenders.
985.48 Juvenile sexual offender commitment programs; sexual abuse intervention networks.
985.481 Sexual offenders adjudicated delinquent; notification upon release.
985.4815 Notification to Department of Law Enforcement of information on juvenile sexual offenders.
985.494 Commitment programs for juvenile felony offenders.
985.43 Predisposition reports; other evaluations.
(1) Upon a finding that the child has committed a delinquent act:
(a) The court may order the department to prepare a predisposition report regarding the child’s eligibility for disposition other than by adjudication and commitment to the department or for disposition of adjudication, commitment to the department, and, if appropriate, assignment of a residential commitment level. The predisposition report shall be the result of the multidisciplinary assessment, when such assessment is needed, and of the classification and placement process, and it shall indicate and report the child’s priority needs, recommendations as to a classification of risk for the child in the context of his or her program and supervision needs, and a plan for treatment that recommends the most appropriate placement setting to meet the child’s needs with the minimum program security that reasonably ensures public safety. A predisposition report shall be ordered for any child for whom a residential commitment disposition is anticipated or recommended by an officer of the court or by the department.
(b) A comprehensive evaluation for physical health; mental health; substance abuse; or academic, educational, or vocational problems shall be ordered for any child for whom a residential commitment disposition is anticipated or recommended by an officer of the court or by the department. If a comprehensive evaluation is ordered, the predisposition report shall include a summary of the comprehensive evaluation.
(c) A child who was not in secure detention at the time of the adjudicatory hearing, but for whom residential commitment is anticipated or recommended, may be placed under a special detention order, as provided in s. 985.26(5), for the purpose of conducting a comprehensive evaluation.
(2) The court shall consider the child’s entire assessment and predisposition report and shall review the records of earlier judicial proceedings prior to making a final disposition of the case. The court may, by order, require additional evaluations and studies to be performed by the department; the county school system; or any social, psychological, or psychiatric agency of the state. The court shall order the educational needs assessment completed under s. 985.18(2) to be included in the assessment and predisposition report.
(3) The predisposition report, together with all other reports and evaluations used by the department in preparing the predisposition report, shall be made available to the child, the child’s parents or legal guardian, the child’s legal counsel, and the state attorney upon completion of the report and at a reasonable time prior to the disposition hearing. The predisposition report shall be submitted to the court upon completion of the report but no later than 48 hours prior to the disposition hearing. The predisposition report shall not be reviewed by the court without the consent of the child and his or her legal counsel until the child has been found to have committed a delinquent act.
History.s. 37, ch. 97-238; s. 29, ch. 2000-135; s. 44, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Subsection (3) former s. 985.229(3).
985.433 Disposition hearings in delinquency cases.When a child has been found to have committed a delinquent act, the following procedures shall be applicable to the disposition of the case:
(1) The court shall notify any victim of the offense, if such person is known and within the jurisdiction of the court, of the hearing.
(2) The court shall notify and summon or subpoena, if necessary, the parents, legal custodians, or guardians of the child to attend the disposition hearing if they reside in the state.
(3) The court may receive and consider any other relevant and material evidence, including other written or oral reports or statements, in its effort to determine the appropriate disposition to be made with regard to the child. The court may rely upon such evidence to the extent of its probative value, even though such evidence may not be technically competent in an adjudicatory hearing.
(4) Before the court determines and announces the disposition to be imposed, it shall:
(a) State clearly, using common terminology, the purpose of the hearing and the right of persons present as parties to comment at the appropriate time on the issues before the court.
(b) Discuss with the child his or her compliance with any predisposition plan or other plan imposed since the date of the offense.
(c) Discuss with the child his or her feelings about the offense committed, the harm caused to the victim or others, and what penalty he or she should be required to pay for such transgression.
(d) Give all parties, as well as the victim or a representative of the victim, representatives of the school system, and the law enforcement officers involved in the case who are present at the hearing an opportunity to comment on the issue of disposition and any proposed rehabilitative plan. Parties to the case shall include the parents, legal custodians, or guardians of the child; the child’s counsel; the state attorney; and representatives of the department.
(5) At the time of disposition, the court may make recommendations to the department as to specific treatment approaches to be employed.
(6) The first determination to be made by the court is a determination of the suitability or nonsuitability for adjudication and commitment of the child to the department. This determination shall include consideration of the recommendations of the department, which may include a predisposition report. The predisposition report shall include, whether as part of the child’s multidisciplinary assessment, classification, and placement process components or separately, evaluation of the following criteria:
(a) The seriousness of the offense to the community. If the court determines under chapter 874 that the child was a member of a criminal gang at the time of the commission of the offense, the seriousness of the offense to the community shall be given great weight.
(b) Whether the protection of the community requires adjudication and commitment to the department.
(c) Whether the offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated, or willful manner.
(d) Whether the offense was against persons or against property, greater weight being given to offenses against persons, especially if personal injury resulted.
(e) The sophistication and maturity of the child.
(f) The record and previous criminal history of the child, including without limitations:
1. Previous contacts with the department, the former Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, the Department of Children and Families, the Department of Corrections, other law enforcement agencies, and courts.
2. Prior periods of probation.
3. Prior adjudications of delinquency.
4. Prior commitments to institutions.
(g) The prospects for adequate protection of the public and the likelihood of reasonable rehabilitation of the child if committed to a community services program or facility.
(h) The child’s educational status, including, but not limited to, the child’s strengths, abilities, and unmet and special educational needs. The report shall identify appropriate educational and career goals for the child. Examples of appropriate goals include:
1. Attainment of a high school diploma or its equivalent.
2. Successful completion of literacy courses.
3. Successful completion of career and technical education courses.
4. Successful attendance and completion of the child’s current grade or recovery of credits of classes the child previously failed, if enrolled in school.
5. Enrollment in an apprenticeship or a similar program.

It is the intent of the Legislature that the criteria set forth in this subsection are general guidelines to be followed at the discretion of the court and not mandatory requirements of procedure. It is not the intent of the Legislature to provide for the appeal of the disposition made under this section.

(7) If the court determines that the child should be adjudicated as having committed a delinquent act and should be committed to the department, such determination shall be in writing or on the record of the hearing. The determination shall include a specific finding of the reasons for the decision to adjudicate and to commit the child to the department, including any determination that the child was a member of a criminal gang.
(a) The department shall recommend to the court the most appropriate placement and treatment plan, specifically identifying the restrictiveness level most appropriate for the child if commitment is recommended. If the court has determined that the child was a member of a criminal gang, that determination shall be given great weight in identifying the most appropriate restrictiveness level for the child. The court shall consider the department’s recommendation in making its commitment decision.
(b) The court shall commit the child to the department at the restrictiveness level identified or may order placement at a different restrictiveness level. The court shall state for the record the reasons that establish by a preponderance of the evidence why the court is disregarding the assessment of the child and the restrictiveness level recommended by the department. Any party may appeal the court’s findings resulting in a modified level of restrictiveness under this paragraph.
(c) The court may also require that the child be placed in a probation program following the child’s discharge from commitment. Community-based sanctions under subsection (8) may be imposed by the court at the disposition hearing or at any time prior to the child’s release from commitment.
(8) If the court determines not to adjudicate and commit to the department, then the court shall determine what community-based sanctions it will impose in a probation program for the child. Community-based sanctions may include, but are not limited to, participation in substance abuse treatment, a day-treatment probation program, restitution in money or in kind, a curfew, revocation or suspension of the driver license of the child, community service, and appropriate educational programs as determined by the district school board.
(9) After appropriate sanctions for the offense are determined, the court shall develop, approve, and order a plan of probation that will contain rules, requirements, conditions, and rehabilitative programs, including the option of a day-treatment probation program, that are designed to encourage responsible and acceptable behavior and to promote both the rehabilitation of the child and the protection of the community.
(10) Any disposition order shall be in writing as prepared by the clerk of court and may thereafter be modified or set aside by the court.
History.s. 38, ch. 97-238; s. 18, ch. 98-207; s. 131, ch. 99-3; s. 30, ch. 2000-135; s. 40, ch. 2001-64; s. 23, ch. 2001-125; s. 45, ch. 2006-120; s. 32, ch. 2008-238; s. 351, ch. 2014-19; s. 22, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.23.
985.435 Probation and postcommitment probation; community service.
(1) The court that has jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made at the disposition hearing, place the child in a probation program or a postcommitment probation program. Such placement must be under the supervision of an authorized agent of the department or of any other person or agency specifically authorized and appointed by the court, whether in the child’s own home, in the home of a relative of the child, or in some other suitable place under such reasonable conditions as the court may direct.
(2) A probation program for an adjudicated delinquent child must include a penalty component such as:
(a) Restitution in money or in kind;
(b) Community service;
(c) A curfew;
(d) Revocation or suspension of the driver license of the child; or
(e) Other nonresidential punishment appropriate to the offense.
(3) A probation program must also include a rehabilitative program component such as a requirement of participation in substance abuse treatment or in a school or career and technical education program. The nonconsent of the child to treatment in a substance abuse treatment program in no way precludes the court from ordering such treatment. Upon the recommendation of the department at the time of disposition, or subsequent to disposition pursuant to the filing of a petition alleging a violation of the child’s conditions of postcommitment probation, the court may order the child to submit to random testing for the purpose of detecting and monitoring the use of alcohol or controlled substances.
(4) A probation program may also include an alternative consequence component to address instances in which a child is noncompliant with technical conditions of his or her probation but has not committed any new violations of law. The alternative consequence component is designed to provide swift and appropriate consequences to any noncompliance with technical conditions of probation. If the probation program includes this component, specific consequences that apply to noncompliance with specific technical conditions of probation must be detailed in the disposition order.
(5) An identification of the child’s risk of reoffending shall be provided by the department, taking into account the child’s needs and risks relative to probation supervision requirements to reasonably ensure the public safety. Probation programs for children shall be supervised by the department or by any other person or agency specifically authorized by the court. These programs must include, but are not limited to, structured or restricted activities as described in this section and s. 985.439, and shall be designed to encourage the child toward acceptable and functional social behavior.
(6) If supervision or a program of community service is ordered by the court, the duration of such supervision or program must be consistent with any treatment and rehabilitation needs identified for the child and may not exceed the term for which sentence could be imposed if the child were committed for the offense, except that the duration of such supervision or program for an offense that is a misdemeanor of the second degree, or is equivalent to a misdemeanor of the second degree, may be for a period not to exceed 6 months.
(7) The court may conduct judicial review hearings for a child placed on probation for the purpose of fostering accountability to the judge and compliance with other requirements, such as restitution and community service. The court may allow early termination of probation for a child who has substantially complied with the terms and conditions of probation.
History.s. 39, ch. 97-238; s. 1, ch. 98-55; s. 14, ch. 98-207; s. 82, ch. 98-280; s. 132, ch. 99-3; s. 15, ch. 99-284; s. 31, ch. 2000-135; s. 24, ch. 2001-125; s. 6, ch. 2005-263; s. 46, ch. 2006-120; s. 23, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.231(1)(a).
985.437 Restitution.
(1) The court that has jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made at the disposition hearing, order the child to make restitution in the manner provided in this section. This order shall be part of the probation program to be implemented by the department or, in the case of a committed child, as part of the community-based sanctions ordered by the court at the disposition hearing or before the child’s release from commitment.
(2) The court may order the child to make restitution in money, through a promissory note cosigned by the child’s parent or guardian, or in kind for any damage or loss caused by the child’s offense in a reasonable amount or manner to be determined by the court. When restitution is ordered by the court, the amount of restitution may not exceed an amount the child and the parent or guardian could reasonably be expected to pay or make.
(3) The clerk of the circuit court shall be the receiving and dispensing agent. In such case, the court shall order the child or the child’s parent or guardian to pay to the office of the clerk of the circuit court an amount not to exceed the actual cost incurred by the clerk as a result of receiving and dispensing restitution payments. The clerk shall notify the court if restitution is not made, and the court shall take any further action that is necessary against the child or the child’s parent or guardian.
(4) A finding by the court, after a hearing, that the parent or guardian has made diligent and good faith efforts to prevent the child from engaging in delinquent acts absolves the parent or guardian of liability for restitution under this section.
(5) The court may retain jurisdiction over a child and the child’s parent or legal guardian whom the court has ordered to pay restitution until the restitution order is satisfied or until the court orders otherwise, as provided in s. 985.0301.
History.s. 47, ch. 2006-120.
985.439 Violation of probation or postcommitment probation.
(1)(a) This section is applicable when the court has jurisdiction over a child on probation or postcommitment probation, regardless of adjudication.
(b) If the conditions of the probation program or the postcommitment probation program are violated, the department or the state attorney may bring the child before the court on a petition alleging a violation of the program. A child who violates the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation must be brought before the court if sanctions are sought.
(2) A child taken into custody under s. 985.101 for violating the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation shall be held in a consequence unit if such a unit is available. The child shall be afforded a hearing within 24 hours after being taken into custody to determine the existence of probable cause that the child violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation. A consequence unit is a secure facility specifically designated by the department for children who are taken into custody under s. 985.101 for violating probation or postcommitment probation, or who have been found by the court to have violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation. If the violation involves a new charge of delinquency, the child may be detained under part V in a facility other than a consequence unit. If the child is not eligible for detention for the new charge of delinquency, the child may be held in the consequence unit pending a hearing and is subject to the time limitations specified in part V.
(3) If the child denies violating the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation, the court shall, upon the child’s request, appoint counsel to represent the child.
(4) Upon the child’s admission, or if the court finds after a hearing that the child has violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation, the court shall enter an order revoking, modifying, or continuing probation or postcommitment probation. In each such case, the court shall enter a new disposition order and, in addition to the sanctions set forth in this section, may impose any sanction the court could have imposed at the original disposition hearing. If the child is found to have violated the conditions of probation or postcommitment probation, the court may:
(a) Place the child in a consequence unit in that judicial circuit, if available, for up to 5 days for a first violation and up to 15 days for a second or subsequent violation.
(b) Place the child in nonsecure detention with electronic monitoring. However, this sanction may be used only if a residential consequence unit is not available.
(c) If the violation of probation is technical in nature and not a new violation of law, place the child in an alternative consequence program designed to provide swift and appropriate consequences to any further violations of probation.
1. Alternative consequence programs shall be established, within existing resources, at the local level in coordination with law enforcement agencies, the chief judge of the circuit, the state attorney, and the public defender.
2. Alternative consequence programs may be operated by an entity such as a law enforcement agency, the department, a juvenile assessment center, a county or municipality, or another entity selected by the department.
3. Upon placing a child in an alternative consequence program, the court must approve specific consequences for specific violations of the conditions of probation.
(d) Modify or continue the child’s probation program or postcommitment probation program.
(e) Revoke probation or postcommitment probation and commit the child to the department.
(5) Upon the recommendation of the department at the time of disposition, or subsequent to disposition pursuant to the filing of a petition alleging a violation of the child’s conditions of postcommitment probation, the court may order the child to submit to random testing for the purpose of detecting and monitoring the use of alcohol or controlled substances.
History.s. 48, ch. 2006-120; s. 24, ch. 2014-162.
985.441 Commitment.
(1) The court that has jurisdiction of an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made at the disposition hearing:
(a) Commit the child to a licensed child-caring agency willing to receive the child; however, the court may not commit the child to a jail or to a facility used primarily as a detention center or facility or shelter.
(b) Commit the child to the department at a restrictiveness level defined in s. 985.03. Such commitment must be for the purpose of exercising active control over the child, including, but not limited to, custody, care, training, monitoring for substance abuse, electronic monitoring, and treatment of the child and release of the child from residential commitment into the community in a postcommitment nonresidential conditional release program. If the child is not successful in the conditional release program, the department may use the transfer procedure under subsection (4).
(c) Commit the child to the department for placement in a program or facility for juvenile sexual offenders in accordance with s. 985.48, subject to specific appropriation for such a program or facility.
1. The child may only be committed for such placement pursuant to determination that the child is a juvenile sexual offender under the criteria specified in s. 985.475.
2. Any commitment of a juvenile sexual offender to a program or facility for juvenile sexual offenders must be for an indeterminate period of time, but the time may not exceed the maximum term of imprisonment that an adult may serve for the same offense.
(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), the court having jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent child whose offense is a misdemeanor, or a child who is currently on probation for a misdemeanor, may not commit the child for any misdemeanor offense or any probation violation that is technical in nature and not a new violation of law at a restrictiveness level other than minimum-risk nonresidential. However, the court may commit such child to a nonsecure residential placement if:
(a) The child has previously been adjudicated or had adjudication withheld for a felony offense;
(b) The child has previously been adjudicated or had adjudication withheld for three or more misdemeanor offenses within the previous 18 months;
(c) The child is before the court for disposition for a violation of s. 800.03, s. 806.031, or s. 828.12; or
(d) The court finds by a preponderance of the evidence that the protection of the public requires such placement or that the particular needs of the child would be best served by such placement. Such finding must be in writing.
(3) The nonconsent of the child to commitment or treatment in a substance abuse treatment program in no way precludes the court from ordering such commitment or treatment.
(4) The department may transfer a child, when necessary to appropriately administer the child’s commitment, from one facility or program to another facility or program operated, contracted, subcontracted, or designated by the department, including a postcommitment nonresidential conditional release program, except that the department may not transfer any child adjudicated solely for a misdemeanor to a residential program except as provided in subsection (2). The department shall notify the court that committed the child to the department and any attorney of record for the child, in writing, of its intent to transfer the child from a commitment facility or program to another facility or program of a higher or lower restrictiveness level. The court that committed the child may agree to the transfer or may set a hearing to review the transfer. If the court does not respond within 10 days after receipt of the notice, the transfer of the child shall be deemed granted.
History.s. 49, ch. 2006-120; s. 1, ch. 2011-54; s. 92, ch. 2012-5; s. 4, ch. 2012-56; s. 25, ch. 2014-162.
985.442 Form of commitment; certified copy of charge attached.
(1) When any child is committed to the department, the commitment form to be used by the judge of the committing court shall be as prescribed by the department.
(2) The clerk of each court committing a child to the department shall prepare and attach to each commitment form a certified copy of the petition upon which the child is being committed to the department.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 40, ch. 97-238; s. 50, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.078; s. 985.232.
985.45 Liability and remuneration for work.
(1) Whenever a child is required by the court to participate in any work program under this part or whenever a child volunteers to work in a specified state, county, municipal, or community service organization supervised work program or to work for the victim, either as an alternative to monetary restitution or as a part of the rehabilitative or probation program, the child is an employee of the state for the purposes of liability.
(2) In determining the child’s average weekly wage unless otherwise determined by a specific funding program, all remuneration received from the employer is a gratuity, and the child is not entitled to any benefits otherwise payable under s. 440.15, regardless of whether the child may be receiving wages and remuneration from other employment with another employer and regardless of the child’s future wage-earning capacity.
History.s. 39, ch. 97-238; s. 31, ch. 2000-135; s. 52, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.231(1)(g).
985.455 Other dispositional issues.
(1) The court that has jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made at the disposition hearing:
(a) Require the child and, if the court finds it appropriate, the child’s parent or guardian, together with the child, to render community service in a public service program.
(b) Order the child and, if the court finds it appropriate, the child’s parent or guardian, together with the child, to participate in a community work project, either as an alternative to monetary restitution or as part of the rehabilitative or probation program.
(c) Revoke or suspend the driver license of the child.
(d) Order the child, upon a determination of the child’s inability to pay, to perform community service in lieu of all court costs assessed against the delinquent child, including costs of prosecution, public defender application fees, and costs of representation.
(2) If the child is attending or is eligible to attend public school and the court finds that the victim or a sibling of the victim in the case is attending or may attend the same school as the child, the court shall, on its own motion or upon the request of any party or any parent or legal guardian of the victim, determine whether it is appropriate to enter a no contact order in favor of the victim or a sibling of the victim. If appropriate and acceptable to the victim and the victim’s parent or parents or legal guardian, the court may reflect in the written disposition order that the victim or the victim’s parent or parents or legal guardian stated in writing or in open court that he or she did not object to the offender being permitted to attend the same school or ride on the same school bus as the victim or a sibling of the victim. If applicable, the court placement or commitment order shall include a finding under this subsection.
(3) Any commitment of a delinquent child to the department must be for an indeterminate period of time, which may include periods of temporary release; however, the period of time may not exceed the maximum term of imprisonment that an adult may serve for the same offense, except that the duration of a minimum-risk nonresidential commitment for an offense that is a misdemeanor of the second degree, or is equivalent to a misdemeanor of the second degree, may be for a period not to exceed 6 months. The duration of the child’s placement in a commitment program of any restrictiveness level shall be based on objective performance-based treatment planning. The child’s treatment plan progress and adjustment-related issues shall be reported to the court quarterly, unless the court requests monthly reports. The child’s length of stay in a commitment program may be extended if the child fails to comply with or participate in treatment activities. The child’s length of stay in the program shall not be extended for purposes of sanction or punishment. Any temporary release from such program must be approved by the court. Any child so committed may be discharged from institutional confinement or a program upon the direction of the department with the concurrence of the court. The child’s treatment plan progress and adjustment-related issues must be communicated to the court at the time the department requests the court to consider releasing the child from the commitment program. The department shall give the court that committed the child to the department reasonable notice, in writing, of its desire to discharge the child from a commitment facility. The court that committed the child may thereafter accept or reject the request. If the court does not respond within 10 days after receipt of the notice, the request of the department shall be deemed granted. This section does not limit the department’s authority to revoke a child’s temporary release status and return the child to a commitment facility for any violation of the terms and conditions of the temporary release.
(4) The court may, upon motion of the child or upon its own motion, within 60 days after imposition of a disposition of commitment, suspend the further execution of the disposition and place the child in a probation program upon such terms and conditions as the court may require. The department shall forward to the court all relevant material on the child’s progress while in custody not later than 3 working days prior to the hearing on the motion to suspend the disposition.
History.s. 39, ch. 97-238; s. 12, ch. 2000-134; s. 31, ch. 2000-135; s. 6, ch. 2005-263; s. 53, ch. 2006-120; s. 4, ch. 2013-112.
Note.Subsections (3), (4) former s. 985.231(1)(d), (h).
985.46 Conditional release.
(1) The Legislature finds that:
(a) Conditional release is the care, treatment, help, supervision, and provision of transition-to-adulthood services to juveniles released from residential commitment programs to promote rehabilitation and prevent recidivism.
(b) Conditional release services can contribute significantly to a successful transition of a juvenile from a residential commitment to the juvenile’s home, school, and community. Therefore, the best efforts should be made to provide for a successful transition.
(c) The purpose of conditional release is to protect safety; reduce recidivism; increase responsible productive behaviors; and provide for a successful transition of care and custody of the youth from the state to the family.
(d) Accordingly, conditional release should be included in the continuum of care.
(2) It is the intent of the Legislature that:
(a) Commitment programs include rehabilitative efforts on preparing committed juveniles for a successful release to the community.
(b) Conditional release transition planning begins as early in the commitment process as possible.
(c) Each juvenile committed to a residential commitment program be assessed to determine the need for conditional release services upon release from the commitment program.
(3) For juveniles referred or committed to the department, the function of the department may include, but shall not be limited to, assessing each juvenile placed in a residential commitment program to determine the need for conditional release services upon release from the program, supervising the juvenile when released into the community from a residential commitment facility of the department, providing such counseling and other services as may be necessary for the families and assisting their preparations for the return of the child. Subject to specific appropriation, the department shall provide for outpatient sexual offender counseling for any juvenile sexual offender released from a residential commitment program as a component of conditional release.
(4) A juvenile under nonresidential commitment placement continues on commitment status and is subject to transfer under s. 985.441(4).
(5) Participation in the educational program by students of compulsory school attendance age pursuant to s. 1003.21(1) and (2)(a) is mandatory for juvenile justice youth on conditional release or postcommitment probation status. A student of noncompulsory school-attendance age who has not received a high school diploma or its equivalent must participate in an educational program or career and technical education course. A youth who has received a high school diploma or its equivalent and is not employed must participate in workforce development or other career or technical education or attend a community college or a university while in the program, subject to available funding.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 55, ch. 94-209; s. 1354, ch. 95-147; s. 5, ch. 95-266; s. 47, ch. 95-267; s. 60, ch. 97-238; s. 17, ch. 99-284; s. 43, ch. 2000-135; s. 6, ch. 2000-137; s. 32, ch. 2001-125; s. 1052, ch. 2002-387; s. 8, ch. 2005-263; s. 54, ch. 2006-120; s. 4, ch. 2011-54; s. 26, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.067; s. 985.316.
985.461 Transition to adulthood.
(1) The Legislature finds that youth are faced with the need to learn how to support themselves within legal means and overcome the stigma of being delinquent. In most cases, parents expedite this transition. It is the intent of the Legislature that the department provide youth in its custody or under its supervision with opportunities for participating in transition-to-adulthood services while in the department’s commitment programs or in probation or conditional release programs in the community. These services should be reasonable and appropriate for the youths’ respective ages or special needs and provide activities that build life skills and increase the ability to live independently and become self-sufficient.
(2) Youth served by the department who are in the custody of the Department of Children and Families and who entered juvenile justice placement from a foster care placement, if otherwise eligible, may receive independent living transition services pursuant to s. 409.1451. Court-ordered commitment or probation with the department is not a barrier to eligibility for the array of services available to a youth who is in the dependency foster care system only.
(3) For a dependent child in the foster care system, adjudication for delinquency does not, by itself, disqualify such child for eligibility in the Department of Children and Families’ independent living program.
(4) As part of the child’s treatment plan, the department may provide transition-to-adulthood services to children released from residential commitment. To support participation in transition-to-adulthood services and subject to appropriation, the department may:
(a) Assess the child’s skills and abilities to live independently and become self-sufficient. The specific services to be provided shall be determined using an assessment of his or her readiness for adult life.
(b) Use community reentry teams to assist in the development of a list of age-appropriate activities and responsibilities to be incorporated in the child’s written case plan for any youth who is under the custody or supervision of the department. Community reentry teams may include representatives from school districts, law enforcement, workforce development services, community-based service providers, and the youth’s family. Such community reentry teams must be created within existing resources provided to the department. Activities may include, but are not limited to, life skills training, including training to develop banking and budgeting skills, interviewing and career planning skills, parenting skills, personal health management, and time management or organizational skills; educational support; employment training; and counseling.
(c) Provide information related to social security insurance benefits and public assistance.
(d) Request parental or guardian permission for the youth to participate in transition-to-adulthood services. Upon such consent, age-appropriate activities shall be incorporated into the youth’s written case plan. This plan may include specific goals and objectives and shall be reviewed and updated at least quarterly. If the parent or guardian is cooperative, the plan may not interfere with the parent’s or guardian’s rights to nurture and train his or her child in ways that are otherwise in compliance with the law and court order.
(e) Contract for transition-to-adulthood services that include residential services and assistance and allow the child to live independently of the daily care and supervision of an adult in a setting that is not licensed under s. 409.175. A child under the care or supervision of the department is eligible for such services if he or she does not pose a danger to the public and is able to demonstrate minimally sufficient skills and aptitude for living under decreased adult supervision, as determined by the department, using established procedures and assessments.
(f) Assist the child in building a portfolio of educational and vocational accomplishments, necessary identification, resumes, and cover letters in an effort to enhance the child’s employability.
(g) Collaborate with school district contacts to facilitate appropriate educational services based on the child’s identified needs.
(5) For a child under the department’s care or supervision, and without benefit of parents or legal guardians capable of assisting the child in the transition to adult life, the department may provide an assessment to determine the child’s skills and abilities to live independently and become self-sufficient. Based on the assessment and within existing resources, services and training may be provided in order to develop the necessary skills and abilities.
(6) The provision of transition-to-adulthood services must be part of an overall plan leading to the total independence of the child from department supervision. The plan must include, but need not be limited to:
(a) A description of the child’s skills and a plan for learning additional identified skills;
(b) The behavior that the child has exhibited which indicates an ability to be responsible and a plan for developing additional responsibilities, as appropriate;
(c) A plan for the provision of future educational, vocational, and training skills;
(d) Present financial and budgeting capabilities and a plan for improving resources and abilities;
(e) A description of the proposed residence;
(f) Documentation that the child understands the specific consequences of his or her conduct in such a program;
(g) Documentation of proposed services to be provided by the department and other agencies, including the type of services and the nature and frequency of contact; and
(h) A plan for maintaining or developing relationships with family, other adults, friends, and the community, as appropriate.
History.s. 2, ch. 2011-236; s. 352, ch. 2014-19; s. 27, ch. 2014-162.
985.465 Juvenile correctional facilities or juvenile prison.A juvenile correctional facility or juvenile prison is a physically secure residential commitment program with a designated length of stay from 18 months to 36 months, primarily serving children 13 years of age to 19 years of age or until the jurisdiction of the court expires. Each child committed to this level must meet one of the following criteria:
(1) The child is at least 13 years of age at the time of the disposition for the current offense and has been adjudicated on the current offense for:
(a) Arson;
(b) Sexual battery;
(c) Robbery;
(d) Kidnapping;
(e) Aggravated child abuse;
(f) Aggravated assault;
(g) Aggravated stalking;
(h) Murder;
(i) Manslaughter;
(j) Unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb;
(k) Armed burglary;
(l) Aggravated battery;
(m) Carjacking;
(n) Home-invasion robbery;
(o) Burglary with an assault or battery;
(p) Any lewd or lascivious offense committed upon or in the presence of a person less than 16 years of age; or
(q) Carrying, displaying, using, threatening to use, or attempting to use a weapon or firearm during the commission of a felony.
(2) The child is at least 13 years of age at the time of the disposition, the current offense is a felony, and the child has previously been committed three or more times to a delinquency commitment program.
(3) The child is at least 13 years of age and is currently committed for a felony offense and transferred from a moderate-risk or high-risk residential commitment placement.
(4) The child is at least 13 years of age at the time of the disposition for the current offense, the child is eligible for prosecution as an adult for the current offense, and the current offense is ranked at level 7 or higher on the Criminal Punishment Code offense severity ranking chart pursuant to s. 921.0022.
History.s. 47, ch. 94-209; s. 15, ch. 95-267; s. 9, ch. 96-398; s. 10, ch. 97-194; s. 57, ch. 97-238; s. 16, ch. 99-201; s. 40, ch. 99-284; s. 55, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.0581; s. 985.313.
985.475 Juvenile sexual offenders.
(1) CRITERIA.A “juvenile sexual offender” means:
(a) A juvenile who has been found by the court under s. 985.35 to have committed a violation of chapter 794, chapter 796, chapter 800, s. 827.071, or s. 847.0133;
(b) A juvenile found to have committed any felony violation of law or delinquent act involving juvenile sexual abuse. “Juvenile sexual abuse” means any sexual behavior that occurs without consent, without equality, or as a result of coercion. For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions apply:
1. “Coercion” means the exploitation of authority, use of bribes, threats of force, or intimidation to gain cooperation or compliance.
2. “Equality” means two participants operating with the same level of power in a relationship, neither being controlled nor coerced by the other.
3. “Consent” means an agreement including all of the following:
a. Understanding what is proposed based on age, maturity, developmental level, functioning, and experience.
b. Knowledge of societal standards for what is being proposed.
c. Awareness of potential consequences and alternatives.
d. Assumption that agreement or disagreement will be accepted equally.
e. Voluntary decision.
f. Mental competence.

Juvenile sexual offender behavior ranges from noncontact sexual behavior such as making obscene phone calls, exhibitionism, voyeurism, and the showing or taking of lewd photographs to varying degrees of direct sexual contact, such as frottage, fondling, digital penetration, rape, fellatio, sodomy, and various other sexually aggressive acts.

(2) Following a delinquency adjudicatory hearing under s. 985.35, the court may on its own or upon request by the state or the department and subject to specific appropriation, determine whether a juvenile sexual offender placement is required for the protection of the public and what would be the best approach to address the treatment needs of the juvenile sexual offender. When the court determines that a juvenile has no history of a recent comprehensive assessment focused on sexually deviant behavior, the court may, subject to specific appropriation, order the department to conduct or arrange for an examination to determine whether the juvenile sexual offender is amenable to community-based treatment.
(a) The report of the examination shall include, at a minimum, the following:
1. The juvenile sexual offender’s account of the incident and the official report of the investigation.
2. The juvenile sexual offender’s offense history.
3. A multidisciplinary assessment of the sexually deviant behaviors, including an assessment by a certified psychologist, therapist, or psychiatrist.
4. An assessment of the juvenile sexual offender’s family, social, educational, and employment situation. The report shall set forth the sources of the evaluator’s information.
(b) The report shall assess the juvenile sexual offender’s amenability to treatment and relative risk to the victim and the community.
(c) The department shall provide a proposed plan to the court that shall include, at a minimum:
1. The frequency and type of contact between the offender and therapist.
2. The specific issues and behaviors to be addressed in the treatment and description of planned treatment methods.
3. Monitoring plans, including any requirements regarding living conditions, school attendance and participation, lifestyle, and monitoring by family members, legal guardians, or others.
4. Anticipated length of treatment.
5. Recommended crime-related prohibitions and curfew.
6. Reasonable restrictions on the contact between the juvenile sexual offender and either the victim or alleged victim.
(d) After receipt of the report on the proposed plan of treatment, the court shall consider whether the community and the offender will benefit from use of juvenile sexual offender community-based treatment alternative disposition and consider the opinion of the victim or the victim’s family as to whether the offender should receive a community-based treatment alternative disposition under this subsection.
(e) If the court determines that this juvenile sexual offender community-based treatment alternative is appropriate, the court may place the offender on community supervision for up to 3 years. As a condition of community treatment and supervision, the court may order the offender to:
1. Undergo available outpatient juvenile sexual offender treatment for up to 3 years. A program or provider may not be used for such treatment unless it has an appropriate program designed for sexual offender treatment. The department shall not change the treatment provider without first notifying the state attorney’s office.
2. Remain within described geographical boundaries and notify the court or the department counselor prior to any change in the offender’s address, educational program, or employment.
3. Comply with all requirements of the treatment plan.
(f) The juvenile sexual offender treatment provider shall submit quarterly reports on the respondent’s progress in treatment to the court and the parties to the proceedings. The juvenile sexual offender reports shall reference the treatment plan and include, at a minimum, the following:
1. Dates of attendance.
2. The juvenile sexual offender’s compliance with the requirements of treatment.
3. A description of the treatment activities.
4. The sexual offender’s relative progress in treatment.
5. The offender’s family support of the treatment objectives.
6. Any other material specified by the court at the time of the disposition.
(g) At the disposition hearing, the court may set case review hearings as the court considers appropriate.
(h) If the juvenile sexual offender violates any condition of the disposition or the court finds that the juvenile sexual offender is failing to make satisfactory progress in treatment, the court may revoke the community-based treatment alternative and order commitment to the department under s. 985.441.
(i) If the court determines that the juvenile sexual offender is not amenable to community-based treatment, the court shall proceed with a juvenile sexual offender disposition hearing under s. 985.441.
History.ss. 3, 39, ch. 97-238; s. 9, ch. 99-284; s. 18, ch. 2000-135; s. 14, ch. 2001-125; s. 1, ch. 2005-263; s. 57, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Subsection (1) former s. 985.03(32). Subsection (2) former s. 985.231(3).
985.48 Juvenile sexual offender commitment programs; sexual abuse intervention networks.
(1) In order to provide intensive treatment and psychological services to a juvenile sexual offender committed to the department, it is the intent of the Legislature to establish programs and strategies to effectively respond to juvenile sexual offenders. In designing programs for juvenile sexual offenders, it is the further intent of the Legislature to implement strategies that include:
(a) Developing adequate commitment programs and facilities to ensure appropriate and effective treatment and ensure that decisions to release juvenile sexual offenders into the community are not made on the basis of inadequate space.
(b) Providing an adequate number of well-trained staff to address the treatment needs of juvenile sexual offenders.
(c) Providing intensive postcommitment supervision of juvenile sexual offenders who are released into the community with terms and conditions which may include electronic monitoring of a juvenile sexual offender for the purpose of enhancing public safety.
(d) Providing notification to the school to which the juvenile sexual offender is returning, the parents or legal guardians of the victim, and law enforcement, when a juvenile sexual offender returns into the community.
(2) Contingent upon a specific appropriation, the department shall implement and operate programs to provide intensive educational and psychological services and other treatment for juvenile sexual offenders.
(3) Subject to specific appropriation, a child may be placed in a juvenile sexual offender program when committed to the department.
(4) The program shall include educational components, life management training, substance abuse treatment, and intensive psychological treatment provided by appropriate mental health professionals. Juvenile sexual offenders shall be required to participate in all programs and treatment.
(5) Based on assessed need for conditional release, the department shall provide an intensive conditional release component for monitoring and assisting the transition of a juvenile sexual offender into the community with terms and conditions that may include electronic monitoring of the juvenile sexual offender.
(6) The department shall establish protocol and procedures to notify schools, the appropriate law enforcement agencies, and the court when a juvenile sexual offender returns to the community.
(7) The department may contract with private organizations for the operation of a juvenile sexual offender program and conditional release.
(8) The department shall conduct inspections of and quality assurance activities for each juvenile sexual offender program operated by or under contract with the department, based on standards specifically developed for these types of programs, to determine whether the program complies with department rules for continued operation of the program.
(9) The department shall maintain records and other information necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of each juvenile sexual offender program and other outcome evaluation requirements.
(10) A child protection team or the state attorney in any judicial circuit may establish a sexual abuse intervention network to assist in identifying, investigating, prosecuting, treating, and preventing sexual abuse with special emphasis on juvenile sexual offenders and victims of sexual abuse.
(11) Membership of a sexual abuse intervention network shall include, but is not limited to, representatives from:
(a) Local law enforcement agencies;
(b) Local school boards;
(c) Child protective investigators;
(d) The office of the state attorney;
(e) The office of the public defender;
(f) The juvenile division of the circuit court;
(g) Professionals licensed under chapter 458, chapter 459, s. 490.0145, or s. 491.0144 providing treatment for juvenile sexual offenders or their victims;
(h) The guardian ad litem program;
(i) The Department of Juvenile Justice; and
(j) The Department of Children and Families.
(12) Each sexual abuse intervention network shall develop a cooperative working agreement describing the roles and responsibilities of all members towards the identification, investigation, prosecution, treatment, and reintegration of juvenile sexual offenders and the treatment of their victims.
(13) Subject to specific appropriation, availability of funds, or receipt of appropriate grant funds, the Office of the Attorney General, the Department of Children and Families, or the Department of Juvenile Justice shall award grants to sexual abuse intervention networks that apply for such grants. The grants may be used for training, treatment, conditional release, evaluation, public awareness, and other specified community needs that are identified by the network. A grant shall be awarded based on the applicant’s level of local funding, level of collaboration, number of juvenile sexual offenders to be served, number of victims to be served, and level of unmet needs.
History.s. 6, ch. 95-266; s. 48, ch. 95-267; s. 52, ch. 97-238; s. 9, ch. 98-158; s. 16, ch. 99-284; s. 36, ch. 2000-135; s. 58, ch. 2006-120; s. 14, ch. 2011-70; s. 5, ch. 2013-118; s. 353, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 39.0571; s. 985.308.
985.481 Sexual offenders adjudicated delinquent; notification upon release.
(1) As used in this section:
(a) “Convicted” has the same meaning as provided in s. 943.0435.
(b) “Electronic mail address” has the same meaning as provided in s. 668.602.
(c) “Internet identifier” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(d) “Permanent residence,” “temporary residence,” and “transient residence” have the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(e) “Professional license” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(f) “Sexual offender” means a person who has been adjudicated delinquent as provided in s. 943.0435(1)(h)1.d.
(g) “Vehicles owned” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(2) The Legislature finds that certain juvenile sexual offenders pose a high risk of engaging in sexual offenses even after being released from commitment and that protection of the public from sexual offenders is a paramount governmental interest. Sexual offenders have a reduced expectation of privacy because of the public’s interest in public safety and in the effective operation of government. Releasing sexual offender information to law enforcement agencies, to persons who request such information, and to the public by a law enforcement agency or public agency will further the governmental interests of public safety.
(3)(a) The department shall provide information regarding any sexual offender who is being released after serving a period of residential commitment under the department for any offense, as follows:
1. The department shall provide the sexual offender’s name, any change in the offender’s name by reason of marriage or other legal process, and any alias, if known; the correctional facility from which the sexual offender is released; the sexual offender’s social security number, race, sex, date of birth, height, weight, and hair and eye color; tattoos or other identifying marks; the make, model, color, vehicle identification number (VIN), and license tag number of all vehicles owned; address of any planned permanent residence or temporary residence, within the state or out of state, including a rural route address and a post office box; if no permanent or temporary address, any transient residence within the state; address, location or description, and dates of any known future temporary residence within the state or out of state; date and county of disposition and each crime for which there was a disposition; a copy of the offender’s fingerprints, palm prints, and a digitized photograph taken within 60 days before release; the date of release of the sexual offender; all home telephone numbers and cellular telephone numbers required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); all electronic mail addresses and Internet identifiers required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); information about any professional licenses the offender has, if known; and passport information, if he or she has a passport, and, if he or she is an alien, information about documents establishing his or her immigration status. The department shall notify the Department of Law Enforcement if the sexual offender escapes, absconds, or dies. If the sexual offender is in the custody of a private correctional facility, the facility shall take the digitized photograph of the sexual offender within 60 days before the sexual offender’s release and also place it in the sexual offender’s file. If the sexual offender is in the custody of a local jail, the custodian of the local jail shall register the offender within 3 business days after intake of the offender for any reason and upon release, and shall notify the Department of Law Enforcement of the sexual offender’s release and provide to the Department of Law Enforcement the information specified in this subparagraph and any information specified in subparagraph 2. which the Department of Law Enforcement requests.
2. The department may provide any other information considered necessary, including criminal and delinquency records, when available.
(b) The department must make the information described in subparagraph (a)1. available electronically to the Department of Law Enforcement in its database and in a format that is compatible with the requirements of the Florida Crime Information Center.
(c) Upon receiving information regarding a sexual offender from the department, the Department of Law Enforcement, the sheriff, or the chief of police shall provide the information described in subparagraph (a)1. to any individual who requests such information and may release the information to the public in any manner considered appropriate, unless the information so received is confidential or exempt from s. 119.07(1) and s. 24(a), Art. I of the State Constitution.
(4) This section authorizes the department or any law enforcement agency to notify the community and the public of a sexual offender’s presence in the community. However, with respect to a sexual offender who has been found to be a sexual predator under chapter 775, the Department of Law Enforcement or any other law enforcement agency must inform the community and the public of the sexual predator’s presence in the community as provided in chapter 775.
(5) An elected or appointed official, public employee, school administrator or employee, or agency, or any individual or entity acting at the request or upon the direction of any law enforcement agency, is immune from civil liability for damages resulting from the release of information under this section.
History.s. 12, ch. 2007-209; s. 6, ch. 2009-194; s. 14, ch. 2010-92; s. 10, ch. 2014-5; s. 28, ch. 2014-162; s. 7, ch. 2016-104; ss. 6, 10, ch. 2017-170.
985.4815 Notification to Department of Law Enforcement of information on juvenile sexual offenders.
(1) As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Change in status at an institution of higher education” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(b) “Conviction” has the same meaning as provided in s. 943.0435.
(c) “Electronic mail address” has the same meaning as provided in s. 668.602.
(d) “Institution of higher education” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(e) “Internet identifier” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(f) “Permanent residence,” “temporary residence,” and “transient residence” have the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(g) “Professional license” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(h) “Sexual offender” means a person who is in the care or custody or under the jurisdiction or supervision of the department or is in the custody of a private correctional facility and who:
1. Has been adjudicated delinquent as provided in s. 943.0435(1)(h)1.d.; or
2. Establishes or maintains a residence in this state and has not been designated as a sexual predator by a court of this state but has been designated as a sexual predator, as a sexually violent predator, or by another sexual offender designation in another state or jurisdiction and was, as a result of such designation, subjected to registration or community or public notification, or both, or would be if the person were a resident of that state or jurisdiction, without regard to whether the person otherwise meets the criteria for registration as a sexual offender.
(i) “Vehicles owned” has the same meaning as provided in s. 775.21.
(2) The clerk of the court that adjudicated and entered a disposition regarding the sexual offender for the offense or offenses for which he or she was convicted shall forward to the department and the Department of Law Enforcement a certified copy of any order entered by the court imposing any special condition or restriction on the sexual offender which restricts or prohibits access to the victim, if the victim is a minor, or to other minors. The Department of Law Enforcement may include on its Internet website such special conditions or restrictions.
(3) If a sexual offender is not sentenced to a term of residential commitment, the clerk of the court shall ensure that the sexual offender’s fingerprints are taken and forwarded to the Department of Law Enforcement within 48 hours after the court sentences the offender. The fingerprints shall be clearly marked “Sexual Offender Registration.”
(4) A sexual offender, as described in this section, who is under the supervision of the department but who is not committed shall register with the department within 3 business days after adjudication and disposition for a registrable offense and otherwise provide information as required by this subsection.
(a) The sexual offender shall provide his or her name; date of birth; social security number; race; sex; height; weight; hair and eye color; tattoos or other identifying marks; the make, model, color, vehicle identification number (VIN), and license tag number of all vehicles owned; permanent or legal residence and address of temporary residence within the state or out of state while the sexual offender is in the care or custody or under the jurisdiction or supervision of the department in this state, including any rural route address or post office box; if no permanent or temporary address, any transient residence; address, location or description, and dates of any current or known future temporary residence within the state or out of state; all home telephone numbers and cellular telephone numbers required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); all electronic mail addresses and Internet identifiers required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); and the name and address of each school attended. The sexual offender shall also produce his or her passport, if he or she has a passport, and, if he or she is an alien, shall produce or provide information about documents establishing his or her immigration status. The offender shall also provide information about any professional licenses he or she has. The department shall verify the address of each sexual offender and shall report to the Department of Law Enforcement any failure by a sexual offender to comply with registration requirements.
(b) If the sexual offender is enrolled or employed, whether for compensation or as a volunteer, at an institution of higher education in this state, the sexual offender shall provide the name, address, and county of each institution, including each campus attended, and the sexual offender’s enrollment, volunteer, or employment status. Each change in status at an institution of higher education must be reported to the department within 48 hours after the change in status at an institution of higher education. The department shall promptly notify each institution of the sexual offender’s presence and any change in the sexual offender’s enrollment, volunteer, or employment status.
(c) A sexual offender shall report in person to the sheriff’s office within 48 hours after any change in vehicles owned to report those vehicle information changes.
(5) In addition to notification and transmittal requirements imposed by any other provision of law, the department shall compile information on any sexual offender and provide the information to the Department of Law Enforcement. The department must make the information available electronically to the Department of Law Enforcement in its database in a format that is compatible with the requirements of the Florida Crime Information Center.
(6)(a) The information provided to the Department of Law Enforcement must include the following:
1. The information obtained from the sexual offender under subsection (4).
2. The sexual offender’s most current address and place of permanent, temporary, or transient residence within the state or out of state, and address, location or description, and dates of any current or known future temporary residence within the state or out of state, while the sexual offender is in the care or custody or under the jurisdiction or supervision of the department in this state, including the name of the county or municipality in which the offender permanently or temporarily resides, or has a transient residence, and address, location or description, and dates of any current or known future temporary residence within the state or out of state; and, if known, the intended place of permanent, temporary, or transient residence, and address, location or description, and dates of any current or known future temporary residence within the state or out of state upon satisfaction of all sanctions.
3. The legal status of the sexual offender and the scheduled termination date of that legal status.
4. The location of, and local telephone number for, any department office that is responsible for supervising the sexual offender.
5. An indication of whether the victim of the offense that resulted in the offender’s status as a sexual offender was a minor.
6. The offense or offenses at adjudication and disposition that resulted in the determination of the offender’s status as a sex offender.
7. A digitized photograph of the sexual offender, which must have been taken within 60 days before the offender was released from the custody of the department or a private correctional facility by expiration of sentence under s. 944.275, or within 60 days after the onset of the department’s supervision of any sexual offender who is on probation, postcommitment probation, residential commitment, nonresidential commitment, licensed child-caring commitment, community control, conditional release, parole, provisional release, or control release or who is supervised by the department under the Interstate Compact Agreement for Probationers and Parolees. If the sexual offender is in the custody of a private correctional facility, the facility shall take a digitized photograph of the sexual offender within the time period provided in this subparagraph and shall provide the photograph to the department.
(b) If any information provided by the department changes during the time the sexual offender is under the department’s care, control, custody, or supervision, including any change in the offender’s name by reason of marriage or other legal process, the department shall, in a timely manner, update the information and provide it to the Department of Law Enforcement in the manner prescribed in subsection (5).
(7) If the sexual offender is in the custody of a local jail, the custodian of the local jail shall register the offender within 3 business days after intake of the offender for any reason and upon release, and shall forward the information to the Department of Law Enforcement. The custodian of the local jail shall also take a digitized photograph of the sexual offender while the offender remains in custody and shall provide the digitized photograph to the Department of Law Enforcement.
(8) If the sexual offender is under federal supervision, the federal agency responsible for supervising the sexual offender may forward to the Department of Law Enforcement any information regarding the sexual offender which is consistent with the information provided by the department under this section and may indicate whether use of the information is restricted to law enforcement purposes only or may be used by the Department of Law Enforcement for purposes of public notification.
(9) A sexual offender, as described in this section, who is under the care, jurisdiction, or supervision of the department but who is not incarcerated shall, in addition to the registration requirements provided in subsection (4), register in the manner provided in s. 943.0435(3), (4), and (5), unless the sexual offender is a sexual predator, in which case he or she shall register as required under s. 775.21. A sexual offender who fails to comply with the requirements of s. 943.0435 is subject to the penalties provided in s. 943.0435(9).
(10)(a) The failure of a sexual offender to submit to the taking of a digitized photograph, or to otherwise comply with the requirements of this section, is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
(b) A sexual offender who commits any act or omission in violation of this section may be prosecuted for the act or omission in the county in which the act or omission was committed, the county of the last registered address of the sexual offender, or the county in which the adjudication and disposition occurred for the offense or offenses that meet the criteria for designating a person as a sexual offender.
(c) An arrest on charges of failure to register when the offender has been provided and advised of his or her statutory obligations to register under s. 943.0435(2), the service of an information or a complaint for a violation of this section, or an arraignment on charges for a violation of this section constitutes actual notice of the duty to register. A sexual offender’s failure to immediately register as required by this section following such arrest, service, or arraignment constitutes grounds for a subsequent charge of failure to register. A sexual offender charged with the crime of failure to register who asserts, or intends to assert, a lack of notice of the duty to register as a defense to a charge of failure to register shall immediately register as required by this section. A sexual offender who is charged with a subsequent failure to register may not assert the defense of a lack of notice of the duty to register.
(d) Registration following such arrest, service, or arraignment is not a defense and does not relieve the sexual offender of criminal liability for the failure to register.
(11) The department, the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Department of Law Enforcement, the Department of Corrections, personnel of those departments, and any individual or entity acting at the request or upon the direction of those departments are immune from civil liability for damages for good faith compliance with this section and shall be presumed to have acted in good faith in compiling, recording, reporting, or providing information. The presumption of good faith is not overcome if technical or clerical errors are made by the department, the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Department of Law Enforcement, the Department of Corrections, personnel of those departments, or any individual or entity acting at the request or upon the direction of those departments in compiling, recording, reporting, or providing information, or, if the information is incomplete or incorrect because the information has not been provided by a person or agency required to provide it, was not reported, or was falsely reported.
(12) Any person who has reason to believe that a sexual offender is not complying, or has not complied, with the requirements of this section and who, with the intent to assist the sexual offender in eluding a law enforcement agency that is seeking to find the sexual offender to question the sexual offender about, or to arrest the sexual offender for, his or her noncompliance with the requirements of this section:
(a) Withholds information from, or does not notify, the law enforcement agency about the sexual offender’s noncompliance with the requirements of this section and, if known, the whereabouts of the sexual offender;
(b) Harbors, attempts to harbor, or assists another person in harboring or attempting to harbor the sexual offender;
(c) Conceals, attempts to conceal, or assists another person in concealing or attempting to conceal the sexual offender; or
(d) Provides information to the law enforcement agency regarding the sexual offender that the person knows to be false

commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. This subsection does not apply if the sexual offender is incarcerated in or is in the custody of a state correctional facility, a private correctional facility, a local jail, or a federal correctional facility.

(13)(a) A sexual offender must report in person each year during the month of the sexual offender’s birthday and during every third month thereafter to the sheriff’s office in the county in which he or she resides or is otherwise located to reregister.
(b) The sheriff’s office may determine the appropriate times and days for reporting by the sexual offender, which must be consistent with the reporting requirements of this subsection. Reregistration must include any changes to the following information:
1. Name; social security number; age; race; sex; date of birth; height; weight; hair and eye color; tattoos or other identifying marks; fingerprints; palm prints; address of any permanent residence and address of any current temporary residence, within the state or out of state, including a rural route address and a post office box; if no permanent or temporary address, any transient residence; address, location or description, and dates of any current or known future temporary residence within the state or out of state; passport information, if he or she has a passport, and, if he or she is an alien, information about documents establishing his or her immigration status; all home telephone numbers and cellular telephone numbers required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); all electronic mail addresses and Internet identifiers required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); name and address of each school attended; employment information required to be provided pursuant to s. 943.0435(4)(e); the make, model, color, vehicle identification number (VIN), and license tag number of all vehicles owned; and photograph. A post office box may not be provided in lieu of a physical residential address. The offender shall also provide information about any professional licenses he or she has.
2. If the sexual offender is enrolled or employed, whether for compensation or as a volunteer, at an institution of higher education in this state, the sexual offender shall also provide to the department the name, address, and county of each institution, including each campus attended, and the sexual offender’s enrollment, volunteer, or employment status.
3. If the sexual offender’s place of residence is a motor vehicle, trailer, mobile home, or manufactured home, as defined in chapter 320, the sexual offender shall also provide the vehicle identification number; the license tag number; the registration number; and a description, including color scheme, of the motor vehicle, trailer, mobile home, or manufactured home. If the sexual offender’s place of residence is a vessel, live-aboard vessel, or houseboat, as defined in chapter 327, the sexual offender shall also provide the hull identification number; the manufacturer’s serial number; the name of the vessel, live-aboard vessel, or houseboat; the registration number; and a description, including color scheme, of the vessel, live-aboard vessel, or houseboat.
4. Any sexual offender who fails to report in person as required at the sheriff’s office, who fails to respond to any address verification correspondence from the department within 3 weeks after the date of the correspondence, or who knowingly provides false registration information by act or omission commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082, 775.083, and 775.084.
(c) The sheriff’s office shall, within 2 working days, electronically submit and update all information provided by the sexual offender to the Department of Law Enforcement in a manner prescribed by that department.
History.s. 13, ch. 2007-209; s. 15, ch. 2010-92; s. 66, ch. 2013-116; s. 11, ch. 2014-5; s. 29, ch. 2014-162; s. 63, ch. 2016-24; s. 8, ch. 2016-104; ss. 7, 11, ch. 2017-170.
985.494 Commitment programs for juvenile felony offenders.
(1) Notwithstanding any other law and regardless of the child’s age, a child who is adjudicated delinquent, or for whom adjudication is withheld, for an act that would be a felony if committed by an adult, shall be committed to a maximum-risk residential program if the child has completed two different high-risk residential commitment programs. The commitment of a child to a maximum-risk residential program must be for an indeterminate period, but may not exceed the maximum term of imprisonment that an adult may serve for the same offense.
(2) In committing a child to the appropriate program, the court may consider an equivalent program of similar intensity as being comparable to a program required under subsection (1).
History.s. 48, ch. 94-209; s. 12, ch. 96-398; s. 58, ch. 97-238; s. 11, ch. 2006-62; s. 62, ch. 2006-120; s. 21, ch. 2010-113; s. 8, ch. 2011-70.
Note.Former s. 39.0584; s. 985.314.
PART VIII
AUTHORITY OF THE COURT
OVER PARENTS OR GUARDIANS
985.511 Costs of representation.
985.512 Powers with respect to certain children.
985.513 Powers of the court over parent or guardian at disposition.
985.514 Responsibility for cost of care; fees.
985.511 Costs of representation.The responsibilities of the parents or legal guardian of the child to pay costs associated with the representation of the child are prescribed under s. 985.033.
History.s. 63, ch. 2006-120.
985.512 Powers with respect to certain children.In carrying out the provisions of this chapter, the court may order the parent or legal guardian of a child adjudicated dependent, a child in need of services, or a delinquent child to attend a course of instruction in parenting skills, to accept counseling, or to receive other assistance from any agency in the community which notifies the clerk of the court of the availability of its services. Where appropriate, the court shall order both parents or guardians to receive such parental assistance.
History.s. 38, ch. 94-209; s. 12, ch. 97-238; s. 64, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.0476; s. 985.204.
985.513 Powers of the court over parent or guardian at disposition.
(1) The court that has jurisdiction over an adjudicated delinquent child may, by an order stating the facts upon which a determination of a sanction and rehabilitative program was made at the disposition hearing:
(a) Order the child’s parent or guardian, together with the child, to render community service in a public service program or to participate in a community work project. In addition to the sanctions imposed on the child, the court may order the child’s parent or guardian to perform community service if the court finds that the parent or guardian did not make a diligent and good faith effort to prevent the child from engaging in delinquent acts.
(b) Order the parent or guardian to make restitution in money or in kind for any damage or loss caused by the child’s offense. The court may also require the child’s parent or legal guardian to be responsible for any restitution ordered against the child, as provided under s. 985.437. The court shall determine a reasonable amount or manner of restitution, and payment shall be made to the clerk of the circuit court as provided in s. 985.437. The court may retain jurisdiction, as provided under s. 985.0301, over the child and the child’s parent or legal guardian whom the court has ordered to pay restitution until the restitution order is satisfied or the court orders otherwise.
(2) Notwithstanding whether adjudication is imposed or withheld, the court may order the natural parents or legal custodian or guardian of a child who is found to have committed a delinquent act to participate in family counseling and other professional counseling activities deemed necessary for the rehabilitation of the child or to enhance their ability to provide the child with adequate support, guidance, and supervision. The court may also order that the parent, custodian, or guardian support the child and participate with the child in fulfilling a court-imposed sanction. In addition, the court may use its contempt powers to enforce a court-imposed sanction.
History.s. 39, ch. 97-238; s. 65, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Subsection (2) former s. 985.231(1)(e).
985.514 Responsibility for cost of care; fees.
(1) When any child is placed into detention care or into other placement for the purpose of being supervised by the department pursuant to a court order following a detention hearing, the court shall order the child’s parents to pay fees to the department as provided in s. 985.039.
(2) When any child is found by the court to have committed a delinquent act and is placed on probation, regardless of adjudication, under the supervision of or in the temporary legal custody of the department, the court shall order the child’s parents to pay fees to the department as provided in s. 985.039.
(3) When the court under s. 985.565 orders any child prosecuted as an adult to be supervised by or committed to the department for treatment in any of the department’s programs for children, the court shall order the child’s parents to pay fees as provided in s. 985.039.
History.s. 66, ch. 2006-120; s. 30, ch. 2014-162; s. 8, ch. 2017-164.
PART IX
APPEAL
985.534 Appeal.
985.535 Additional grounds for appeal by the state; time for taking.
985.536 Order or decision when state appeals.
985.534 Appeal.
(1) An appeal from an order of the court affecting a party to a case involving a child under this chapter may be taken to the appropriate district court of appeal within the time and in the manner prescribed by s. 924.051 and the Florida Rules of Appellate Procedure by:
(a) Any child, and any parent or legal guardian or custodian of any child.
(b) The state, which may appeal from:
1. An order dismissing a petition or any section thereof;
2. An order granting a new adjudicatory hearing;
3. An order arresting judgment;
4. A ruling on a question of law when the child is adjudicated delinquent and appeals from the judgment;
5. The disposition, on the ground that it is illegal;
6. A judgment discharging a child on habeas corpus;
7. An order adjudicating a child insane under the Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure; and
8. All other preadjudicatory hearings, except that the state may not take more than one appeal under this subsection in any case.

In the case of an appeal by the state, the notice of appeal shall be filed by the appropriate state attorney or his or her authorized assistant under s. 27.18. Such an appeal shall embody all assignments of error in each preadjudicatory hearing order that the state seeks to have reviewed. The state shall pay all costs of the appeal except for the child’s attorney’s fee.

(2) The Department of Legal Affairs shall represent the state upon appeal and shall be notified of the appeal by the clerk when the notice of appeal is filed in the circuit court.
(3) The taking of an appeal shall not operate as a supersedeas in any case unless pursuant to an order of the court.
(4) The case on appeal shall be docketed, and any papers filed in the appellate court shall be entitled, with the initials but not the name of the child and the court case number, and the papers shall remain sealed in the office of the clerk of the appellate court when not in use by the appellate court and shall not be open to public inspection. The decision of the appellate court shall be likewise entitled and shall refer to the child only by initials and court case number.
(5) The original order of the appellate court, with all papers filed in the case on appeal, shall remain in the office of the clerk of the court, sealed and not open to inspection except by order of the appellate court. The clerk of the appellate court shall return to the circuit court all papers transmitted to the appellate court from the circuit court, together with a certified copy of the order of the appellate court.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 225, ch. 95-147; s. 42, ch. 97-238; s. 31, ch. 99-284; s. 67, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.069; s. 985.234.
985.535 Additional grounds for appeal by the state; time for taking.
(1) The state may appeal from a preadjudicatory hearing order dismissing a search warrant, suppressing evidence obtained by search and seizure, or suppressing a confession or admission made by a child. The appeal must be taken before the adjudicatory hearing.
(2) An appeal by the state from a preadjudicatory hearing order shall stay the case against a child upon whose application the order was made until the appeal is determined. If the court from which the appeal is taken determines that the evidence, confession, or admission that is the subject of the order would materially assist the state in proving its case against another child and that the prosecuting attorney intends to use it for that purpose, the court shall stay the case of that child until the appeal is determined. The trial court in its discretion may release a child whose case is stayed pending appeal. A child who is not released from custody pending appeal may petition the appellate court for expedited consideration of the appeal.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 43, ch. 97-238; s. 68, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.0711; s. 985.235.
985.536 Order or decision when state appeals.
(1) When the state appeals from an order dismissing a delinquency petition, or a count thereof, or an order granting a new adjudicatory hearing, and the order is affirmed, the appellate court shall direct the court from which the appeal was taken to implement the order. If an order dismissing a delinquency petition, or a count thereof, is reversed, the appellate court shall direct the court from which the appeal is taken to permit the child to be tried on the reinstated petition or count thereof. If an order granting a new trial is reversed, the appellate court shall direct that judgment of adjudication be entered against the child.
(2) When the state appeals from a ruling on a question of law adverse to the state, the appellate court shall decide the question.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 44, ch. 97-238; s. 68, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.072; s. 985.236.
PART X
TRANSFER TO ADULT COURT
985.556 Waiver of juvenile court jurisdiction; hearing.
985.557 Direct filing of an information; discretionary and mandatory criteria.
985.56 Indictment of a juvenile.
985.565 Sentencing powers; procedures; alternatives for juveniles prosecuted as adults.
985.57 Transfer of children from the Department of Corrections to the Department of Juvenile Justice.
985.556 Waiver of juvenile court jurisdiction; hearing.
(1) VOLUNTARY WAIVER.The court shall transfer and certify a child’s criminal case for trial as an adult if the child is alleged to have committed a violation of law and, prior to the commencement of an adjudicatory hearing, the child, joined by a parent or, in the absence of a parent, by the guardian or guardian ad litem, demands in writing to be tried as an adult. Once a child has been transferred for criminal prosecution pursuant to a voluntary waiver hearing and has been found to have committed the presenting offense or a lesser included offense, the child shall be handled thereafter in every respect as an adult for any subsequent violation of state law, unless the court imposes juvenile sanctions under s. 985.565(4)(b).
(2) INVOLUNTARY DISCRETIONARY WAIVER.Except as provided in subsection (3), the state attorney may file a motion requesting the court to transfer the child for criminal prosecution if the child was 14 years of age or older at the time the alleged delinquent act or violation of law was committed.
(3) INVOLUNTARY MANDATORY WAIVER.
(a) If the child was 14 years of age or older, and if the child has been previously adjudicated delinquent for an act classified as a felony, which adjudication was for the commission of, attempt to commit, or conspiracy to commit murder, sexual battery, armed or strong-armed robbery, carjacking, home-invasion robbery, aggravated battery, aggravated assault, or burglary with an assault or battery, and the child is currently charged with a second or subsequent violent crime against a person; or
(b) If the child was 14 years of age or older at the time of commission of a fourth or subsequent alleged felony offense and the child was previously adjudicated delinquent or had adjudication withheld for or was found to have committed, or to have attempted or conspired to commit, three offenses that are felony offenses if committed by an adult, and one or more of such felony offenses involved the use or possession of a firearm or violence against a person;

the state attorney shall request the court to transfer and certify the child for prosecution as an adult or shall provide written reasons to the court for not making such request, or proceed under s. 985.557(1). Upon the state attorney’s request, the court shall either enter an order transferring the case and certifying the case for trial as if the child were an adult or provide written reasons for not issuing such an order.

(4) WAIVER HEARING.
(a) Within 7 days, excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal holidays, after the date a petition alleging that a child has committed a delinquent act or violation of law has been filed, or later with the approval of the court, but before an adjudicatory hearing and after considering the recommendation of the juvenile probation officer, the state attorney may file a motion requesting the court to transfer the child for criminal prosecution.
(b) After the filing of the motion of the state attorney, summonses must be issued and served in conformity with s. 985.319. A copy of the motion and a copy of the delinquency petition, if not already served, must be attached to each summons.
(c) The court shall conduct a hearing on all transfer request motions for the purpose of determining whether a child should be transferred. In making its determination, the court shall consider:
1. The seriousness of the alleged offense to the community and whether the protection of the community is best served by transferring the child for adult sanctions.
2. Whether the alleged offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated, or willful manner.
3. Whether the alleged offense was against persons or against property, greater weight being given to offenses against persons, especially if personal injury resulted.
4. The probable cause as found in the report, affidavit, or complaint.
5. The desirability of trial and disposition of the entire offense in one court when the child’s associates in the alleged crime are adults or children who are to be tried as adults.
6. The sophistication and maturity of the child.
7. The record and previous history of the child, including:
a. Previous contacts with the department, the Department of Corrections, the former Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, the Department of Children and Families, other law enforcement agencies, and courts;
b. Prior periods of probation;
c. Prior adjudications that the child committed a delinquent act or violation of law, greater weight being given if the child has previously been found by a court to have committed a delinquent act or violation of law involving an offense classified as a felony or has twice previously been found to have committed a delinquent act or violation of law involving an offense classified as a misdemeanor; and
d. Prior commitments to institutions.
8. The prospects for adequate protection of the public and the likelihood of reasonable rehabilitation of the child, if the child is found to have committed the alleged offense, by the use of procedures, services, and facilities currently available to the court.
(d) Prior to a hearing on the transfer request motion by the state attorney, a study and report to the court relevant to the factors in paragraph (c) must be made in writing by an authorized agent of the department. The child and the child’s parents or legal guardians and counsel and the state attorney shall have the right to examine these reports and to question the parties responsible for them at the hearing.
(e) Any decision to transfer a child for criminal prosecution must be in writing and include consideration of, and findings of fact with respect to, all criteria in paragraph (c). The court shall render an order including a specific finding of fact and the reasons for a decision to impose adult sanctions. The order shall be reviewable on appeal under s. 985.534 and the Florida Rules of Appellate Procedure.
(5) EFFECT OF ORDER WAIVING JURISDICTION.
(a) Once a child has been transferred for criminal prosecution pursuant to an involuntary waiver hearing and has been found to have committed the presenting offense or a lesser included offense, the child shall thereafter be handled in every respect as an adult for any subsequent violation of state law, unless the court imposes juvenile sanctions under s. 985.565.
(b) When a child is transferred for criminal prosecution as an adult, the court shall immediately transfer and certify to the adult circuit court all felony cases pertaining to the child, for prosecution of the child as an adult, which have not yet resulted in a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or in which a finding of guilt has not been made. If the child is acquitted of all charged offenses or lesser included offenses contained in the original case transferred to adult court, all felony cases that were transferred to adult court under this paragraph shall be subject to the same penalties such cases were subject to before being transferred to adult court.
History.s. 34, ch. 97-238; s. 17, ch. 98-207; s. 37, ch. 99-284; s. 4, ch. 2000-119; s. 26, ch. 2000-135; s. 69, ch. 2006-120; s. 354, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 985.226.
985.557 Direct filing of an information; discretionary and mandatory criteria.
(1) DISCRETIONARY DIRECT FILE.
(a) With respect to any child who was 14 or 15 years of age at the time the alleged offense was committed, the state attorney may file an information when in the state attorney’s judgment and discretion the public interest requires that adult sanctions be considered or imposed and when the offense charged is for the commission of, attempt to commit, or conspiracy to commit:
1. Arson;
2. Sexual battery;
3. Robbery;
4. Kidnapping;
5. Aggravated child abuse;
6. Aggravated assault;
7. Aggravated stalking;
8. Murder;
9. Manslaughter;
10. Unlawful throwing, placing, or discharging of a destructive device or bomb;
11. Armed burglary in violation of s. 810.02(2)(b) or specified burglary of a dwelling or structure in violation of s. 810.02(2)(c), or burglary with an assault or battery in violation of s. 810.02(2)(a);
12. Aggravated battery;
13. Any lewd or lascivious offense committed upon or in the presence of a person less than 16 years of age;
14. Carrying, displaying, using, threatening, or attempting to use a weapon or firearm during the commission of a felony;
15. Grand theft in violation of s. 812.014(2)(a);
16. Possessing or discharging any weapon or firearm on school property in violation of s. 790.115;
17. Home invasion robbery;
18. Carjacking; or
19. Grand theft of a motor vehicle in violation of s. 812.014(2)(c)6. or grand theft of a motor vehicle valued at $20,000 or more in violation of s. 812.014(2)(b) if the child has a previous adjudication for grand theft of a motor vehicle in violation of s. 812.014(2)(c)6. or s. 812.014(2)(b).
(b) With respect to any child who was 16 or 17 years of age at the time the alleged offense was committed, the state attorney may file an information when in the state attorney’s judgment and discretion the public interest requires that adult sanctions be considered or imposed. However, the state attorney may not file an information on a child charged with a misdemeanor, unless the child has had at least two previous adjudications or adjudications withheld for delinquent acts, one of which involved an offense classified as a felony under state law.
(2) MANDATORY DIRECT FILE.
(a) With respect to any child who was 16 or 17 years of age at the time the alleged offense was committed, the state attorney shall file an information if the child has been previously adjudicated delinquent for an act classified as a felony, which adjudication was for the commission of, attempt to commit, or conspiracy to commit murder, sexual battery, armed or strong-armed robbery, carjacking, home-invasion robbery, aggravated battery, or aggravated assault, and the child is currently charged with a second or subsequent violent crime against a person.
(b) With respect to any child 16 or 17 years of age at the time an offense classified as a forcible felony, as defined in s. 776.08, was committed, the state attorney shall file an information if the child has previously been adjudicated delinquent or had adjudication withheld for three acts classified as felonies each of which occurred at least 45 days apart from each other. This paragraph does not apply when the state attorney has good cause to believe that exceptional circumstances exist which preclude the just prosecution of the juvenile in adult court.
(c) The state attorney must file an information if a child, regardless of the child’s age at the time the alleged offense was committed, is alleged to have committed an act that would be a violation of law if the child were an adult, that involves stealing a motor vehicle, including, but not limited to, a violation of s. 812.133, relating to carjacking, or s. 812.014(2)(c)6., relating to grand theft of a motor vehicle, and while the child was in possession of the stolen motor vehicle the child caused serious bodily injury to or the death of a person who was not involved in the underlying offense. For purposes of this section, the driver and all willing passengers in the stolen motor vehicle at the time such serious bodily injury or death is inflicted shall also be subject to mandatory transfer to adult court. “Stolen motor vehicle,” for the purposes of this section, means a motor vehicle that has been the subject of any criminal wrongful taking. For purposes of this section, “willing passengers” means all willing passengers who have participated in the underlying offense.
(d)1. With respect to any child who was 16 or 17 years of age at the time the alleged offense was committed, the state attorney shall file an information if the child has been charged with committing or attempting to commit an offense listed in s. 775.087(2)(a)1.a.-p., and, during the commission of or attempt to commit the offense, the child:
a. Actually possessed a firearm or destructive device, as those terms are defined in s. 790.001.
b. Discharged a firearm or destructive device, as described in s. 775.087(2)(a)2.
c. Discharged a firearm or destructive device, as described in s. 775.087(2)(a)3., and, as a result of the discharge, death or great bodily harm was inflicted upon any person.
2. Upon transfer, any child who is:
a. Charged under sub-subparagraph 1.a. and who has been previously adjudicated or had adjudication withheld for a forcible felony offense or any offense involving a firearm, or who has been previously placed in a residential commitment program, shall be subject to sentencing under s. 775.087(2)(a), notwithstanding s. 985.565.
b. Charged under sub-subparagraph 1.b. or sub-subparagraph 1.c., shall be subject to sentencing under s. 775.087(2)(a), notwithstanding s. 985.565.
3. Upon transfer, any child who is charged under this paragraph, but who does not meet the requirements specified in subparagraph 2., shall be sentenced under s. 985.565; however, if the court imposes a juvenile sanction, the court must commit the child to a high-risk or maximum-risk juvenile facility.
4. This paragraph shall not apply if the state attorney has good cause to believe that exceptional circumstances exist that preclude the just prosecution of the child in adult court.
5. The Department of Corrections shall make every reasonable effort to ensure that any child 16 or 17 years of age who is convicted and sentenced under this paragraph be completely separated such that there is no physical contact with adult offenders in the facility, to the extent that it is consistent with chapter 958.
(3) EFFECT OF DIRECT FILE.
(a) Once a child has been transferred for criminal prosecution pursuant to an information and has been found to have committed the presenting offense or a lesser included offense, the child shall be handled thereafter in every respect as if an adult for any subsequent violation of state law, unless the court imposes juvenile sanctions under s. 985.565.
(b) When a child is transferred for criminal prosecution as an adult, the court shall immediately transfer and certify to the adult circuit court all felony cases pertaining to the child, for prosecution of the child as an adult, which have not yet resulted in a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or in which a finding of guilt has not been made. If a child is acquitted of all charged offenses or lesser included offenses contained in the original case transferred to adult court, all felony cases that were transferred to adult court as a result of this paragraph shall be subject to the same penalties to which such cases would have been subject before being transferred to adult court.
(c) When a child has been transferred for criminal prosecution as an adult and has been found to have committed a violation of state law, the disposition of the case may be made under s. 985.565 and may include the enforcement of any restitution ordered in any juvenile proceeding.
(4) An information filed pursuant to this section may include all charges that are based on the same act, criminal episode, or transaction as the primary offenses.
History.s. 35, ch. 97-238; s. 130, ch. 99-3; s. 15, ch. 99-201; s. 1, ch. 99-257; s. 26, ch. 99-284; s. 2, ch. 2000-119; s. 27, ch. 2000-135; s. 1, ch. 2000-136; s. 21, ch. 2001-125; s. 4, ch. 2001-185; s. 5, ch. 2006-51; s. 70, ch. 2006-120; s. 5, ch. 2011-200; s. 2, ch. 2016-7.
Note.Former s. 985.227.
985.56 Indictment of a juvenile.
(1) A child of any age who is charged with a violation of state law punishable by death or by life imprisonment is subject to the jurisdiction of the court as set forth in s. 985.0301(2) unless and until an indictment on the charge is returned by the grand jury. When such indictment is returned, the petition for delinquency, if any, must be dismissed and the child must be tried and handled in every respect as an adult:
(a) On the offense punishable by death or by life imprisonment; and
(b) On all other felonies or misdemeanors charged in the indictment which are based on the same act or transaction as the offense punishable by death or by life imprisonment or on one or more acts or transactions connected with the offense punishable by death or by life imprisonment.
(2) An adjudicatory hearing may not be held until 21 days after the child is taken into custody and charged with having committed an offense punishable by death or by life imprisonment, unless the state attorney advises the court in writing that he or she does not intend to present the case to the grand jury, or has presented the case to the grand jury and the grand jury has not returned an indictment. If the court receives such a notice from the state attorney, or if the grand jury fails to act within the 21-day period, the court may proceed as otherwise authorized under this part.
(3) If the child is found to have committed the offense punishable by death or by life imprisonment, the child shall be sentenced as an adult. If the juvenile is not found to have committed the indictable offense but is found to have committed a lesser included offense or any other offense for which he or she was indicted as a part of the criminal episode, the court may sentence under s. 985.565.
(4)(a) Once a child has been indicted pursuant to this section and has been found to have committed any offense for which he or she was indicted as a part of the criminal episode, the child shall be handled thereafter in every respect as if an adult for any subsequent violation of state law, unless the court imposes juvenile sanctions under s. 985.565.
(b) When a child has been indicted pursuant to this section, the court shall immediately transfer and certify to the adult circuit court all felony cases pertaining to the child, for prosecution of the child as an adult, which have not yet resulted in a plea of guilty or nolo contendere or in which a finding of guilt has not been made. If the child is acquitted of all charged offenses or lesser included offenses contained in the indictment case, all felony cases that were transferred to adult court pursuant to this paragraph shall be subject to the same penalties such cases were subject to before being transferred to adult court.
History.s. 33, ch. 97-238; s. 35, ch. 99-284; s. 38, ch. 2001-64; s. 71, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.225.
985.565 Sentencing powers; procedures; alternatives for juveniles prosecuted as adults.
(1) POWERS OF DISPOSITION.
(a) A child who is found to have committed a violation of law may, as an alternative to adult dispositions, be committed to the department for treatment in an appropriate program for children outside the adult correctional system or be placed on juvenile probation.
(b) In determining whether to impose juvenile sanctions instead of adult sanctions, the court shall consider the following criteria:
1. The seriousness of the offense to the community and whether the community would best be protected by juvenile or adult sanctions.
2. Whether the offense was committed in an aggressive, violent, premeditated, or willful manner.
3. Whether the offense was against persons or against property, with greater weight being given to offenses against persons, especially if personal injury resulted.
4. The sophistication and maturity of the offender.
5. The record and previous history of the offender, including:
a. Previous contacts with the Department of Corrections, the Department of Juvenile Justice, the former Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, the Department of Children and Families, law enforcement agencies, and the courts.
b. Prior periods of probation.
c. Prior adjudications that the offender committed a delinquent act or violation of law as a child.
d. Prior commitments to the Department of Juvenile Justice, the former Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, the Department of Children and Families, or other facilities or institutions.
6. The prospects for adequate protection of the public and the likelihood of deterrence and reasonable rehabilitation of the offender if assigned to services and facilities of the Department of Juvenile Justice.
7. Whether the Department of Juvenile Justice has appropriate programs, facilities, and services immediately available.
8. Whether adult sanctions would provide more appropriate punishment and deterrence to further violations of law than the imposition of juvenile sanctions.
(2) PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION REPORT.
(a) Upon a plea of guilty, the court may refer the case to the department for investigation and recommendation as to the suitability of its programs for the child.
(b) Upon completion of the presentence investigation report, it must be made available to the child’s counsel and the state attorney by the department prior to the sentencing hearing.
(3) SENTENCING HEARING.
(a) At the sentencing hearing the court shall receive and consider a presentence investigation report by the Department of Corrections regarding the suitability of the offender for disposition as an adult or as a juvenile. The presentence investigation report must include a comments section prepared by the Department of Juvenile Justice, with its recommendations as to disposition. This report requirement may be waived by the offender.
(b) After considering the presentence investigation report, the court shall give all parties present at the hearing an opportunity to comment on the issue of sentence and any proposed rehabilitative plan. Parties to the case include the parent, guardian, or legal custodian of the offender; the offender’s counsel; the state attorney; representatives of the Department of Corrections and the Department of Juvenile Justice; the victim or victim’s representative; representatives of the school system; and the law enforcement officers involved in the case.
(c) The court may receive and consider any other relevant and material evidence, including other reports, written or oral, in its effort to determine the action to be taken with regard to the child, and may rely upon such evidence to the extent of its probative value even if the evidence would not be competent in an adjudicatory hearing.
(d) The court shall notify any victim of the offense of the hearing and shall notify, or subpoena if appropriate, the parents, guardians, or legal custodians of the child to attend the disposition hearing.
(4) SENTENCING ALTERNATIVES.
(a) Adult sanctions.
1. Cases prosecuted on indictment.If the child is found to have committed the offense punishable by death or life imprisonment, the child shall be sentenced as an adult. If the juvenile is not found to have committed the indictable offense but is found to have committed a lesser included offense or any other offense for which he or she was indicted as a part of the criminal episode, the court may sentence as follows:
a. As an adult;
b. Under chapter 958; or
c. As a juvenile under this section.
2. Other cases.If a child who has been transferred for criminal prosecution pursuant to information or waiver of juvenile court jurisdiction is found to have committed a violation of state law or a lesser included offense for which he or she was charged as a part of the criminal episode, the court may sentence as follows:
a. As an adult;
b. Under chapter 958; or
c. As a juvenile under this section.
3. Notwithstanding any other provision to the contrary, if the state attorney is required to file a motion to transfer and certify the juvenile for prosecution as an adult under s. 985.556(3) and that motion is granted, or if the state attorney is required to file an information under s. 985.557(2)(a) or (b), the court must impose adult sanctions.
4. Any sentence imposing adult sanctions is presumed appropriate, and the court is not required to set forth specific findings or enumerate the criteria in this subsection as any basis for its decision to impose adult sanctions.
5. When a child has been transferred for criminal prosecution as an adult and has been found to have committed a violation of state law, the disposition of the case may include the enforcement of any restitution ordered in any juvenile proceeding.
(b) Juvenile sanctions.For juveniles transferred to adult court but who do not qualify for such transfer under s. 985.556(3) or s. 985.557(2)(a) or (b), the court may impose juvenile sanctions under this paragraph. If juvenile sentences are imposed, the court shall, under this paragraph, adjudge the child to have committed a delinquent act. Adjudication of delinquency shall not be deemed a conviction, nor shall it operate to impose any of the civil disabilities ordinarily resulting from a conviction. The court shall impose an adult sanction or a juvenile sanction and may not sentence the child to a combination of adult and juvenile punishments. An adult sanction or a juvenile sanction may include enforcement of an order of restitution or probation previously ordered in any juvenile proceeding. However, if the court imposes a juvenile sanction and the department determines that the sanction is unsuitable for the child, the department shall return custody of the child to the sentencing court for further proceedings, including the imposition of adult sanctions. Upon adjudicating a child delinquent under subsection (1), the court may:
1. Place the child in a probation program under the supervision of the department for an indeterminate period of time until the child reaches the age of 19 years or sooner if discharged by order of the court.
2. Commit the child to the department for treatment in an appropriate program for children for an indeterminate period of time until the child is 21 or sooner if discharged by the department. The department shall notify the court of its intent to discharge no later than 14 days prior to discharge. Failure of the court to timely respond to the department’s notice shall be considered approval for discharge.
3. Order disposition under ss. 985.435, 985.437, 985.439, 985.441, 985.45, and 985.455 as an alternative to youthful offender or adult sentencing if the court determines not to impose youthful offender or adult sanctions.
(c) Adult sanctions upon failure of juvenile sanctions.If a child proves not to be suitable to a commitment program, juvenile probation program, or treatment program under paragraph (b), the department shall provide the sentencing court with a written report outlining the basis for its objections to the juvenile sanction and shall simultaneously provide a copy of the report to the state attorney and the defense counsel. The department shall schedule a hearing within 30 days. Upon hearing, the court may revoke the previous adjudication, impose an adjudication of guilt, and impose any sentence which it may lawfully impose, giving credit for all time spent by the child in the department. The court may also classify the child as a youthful offender under s. 958.04, if appropriate. For purposes of this paragraph, a child may be found not suitable to a commitment program, community control program, or treatment program under paragraph (b) if the child commits a new violation of law while under juvenile sanctions, if the child commits any other violation of the conditions of juvenile sanctions, or if the child’s actions are otherwise determined by the court to demonstrate a failure of juvenile sanctions.
(d) Further proceedings heard in adult court.When a child is sentenced to juvenile sanctions, further proceedings involving those sanctions shall continue to be heard in the adult court.
(e) School attendance.If the child is attending or is eligible to attend public school and the court finds that the victim or a sibling of the victim in the case is attending or may attend the same school as the child, the court placement order shall include a finding pursuant to the proceeding described in s. 985.455(2), regardless of whether adjudication is withheld.

It is the intent of the Legislature that the criteria and guidelines in this subsection are mandatory and that a determination of disposition under this subsection is subject to the right of the child to appellate review under s. 985.534.

History.s. 1, ch. 97-69; s. 41, ch. 97-238; s. 3, ch. 2000-119; s. 13, ch. 2000-134; s. 32, ch. 2000-135; s. 27, ch. 2001-125; s. 20, ch. 2005-263; s. 72, ch. 2006-120; s. 166, ch. 2007-5; s. 12, ch. 2011-70; s. 355, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 985.233(1)-(3), (4)(a)-(c), (e), (f).
985.57 Transfer of children from the Department of Corrections to the Department of Juvenile Justice.
(1) When any child under the age of 18 years is sentenced by any court of competent jurisdiction to the Department of Corrections, the Secretary of Juvenile Justice may transfer such child to the department for the remainder of the sentence, or until his or her 21st birthday, whichever results in the shorter term. If, upon such person’s attaining his or her 21st birthday, the sentence has not terminated, he or she shall be transferred to the Department of Corrections for placement in a youthful offender program, transferred to the supervision of the department, or be given any other transfer that may lawfully be made.
(2) If the child is under sentence for a term of years, after the department has supervised him or her for a sufficient length of time to ascertain that he or she has attained satisfactory rehabilitation, the department, upon determination that such action is in the best interests of both the child and society, may relieve the child from making further reports.
(3) When the child has, in the opinion of the department, so conducted himself or herself as to deserve a pardon, a commutation of sentence, or the remission in whole or in part of any fine, forfeiture, or penalty, the secretary may recommend that such clemency be extended to the child. In such case the secretary shall fully advise the Governor of the facts upon which such recommendation is based.
(4) The department shall grant gain-time for good conduct, may grant extra good-time allowances, and may declare a forfeiture thereof. If any child who was sentenced pursuant to s. 921.18 is transferred to the department, the department may determine the exact sentence of the child, but the sentence may not be longer than the maximum sentence that was imposed by the court pursuant to s. 921.18. All time spent in the department shall count toward the expiration of sentence. Any child transferred to the department may, at the discretion of the secretary, be returned to the Department of Corrections.
(5) Any child who has been convicted of a capital felony while under the age of 18 years may not be released on probation without the consent of the Governor and two members of the Cabinet.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 53, ch. 94-209; s. 1353, ch. 95-147; s. 77, ch. 97-238; s. 22, ch. 99-284; s. 54, ch. 2000-135; s. 35, ch. 2001-125; s. 20, ch. 2003-6; s. 73, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.062; s. 985.417.
PART XI
DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE
985.601 Administering the juvenile justice continuum.
985.6015 Shared County/State Juvenile Detention Trust Fund.
985.614 Children locked out of the home; interagency cooperation.
985.618 Educational and career-related programs.
985.622 Multiagency plan for career and professional education (CAPE).
985.625 Literacy programs for juvenile offenders.
985.629 Contracts for the transfer of Florida children in federal custody.
985.632 Quality improvement and cost-effectiveness; Comprehensive Accountability Report.
985.64 Rulemaking.
985.644 Departmental contracting powers; personnel standards and investigation.
985.6441 Health care services.
985.645 Protective action response.
985.648 Consultants.
985.652 Participation of certain programs in the State Risk Management Trust Fund.
985.66 Juvenile justice training; staff development and training; Juvenile Justice Training Trust Fund.
985.664 Juvenile justice circuit advisory boards.
985.668 Innovation zones.
985.672 Direct-support organization; definition; use of property; board of directors; audit.
985.676 Community juvenile justice partnership grants.
985.682 Siting of facilities; criteria.
985.686 Shared county and state responsibility for juvenile detention.
985.6865 Juvenile detention.
985.688 Administering county and municipal delinquency programs and facilities.
985.69 Repair and maintenance funding for juvenile justice purposes.
985.692 Juvenile Welfare Trust Fund.
985.601 Administering the juvenile justice continuum.
(1) The Department of Juvenile Justice shall plan, develop, and coordinate comprehensive services and programs statewide for the prevention, early intervention, control, and rehabilitative treatment of delinquent behavior.
(2) The department shall develop and implement an appropriate continuum of care that provides individualized, multidisciplinary assessments, objective evaluations of relative risks, and the matching of needs with placements for all children under its care, and that uses a system of case management to facilitate each child being appropriately assessed, provided with services, and placed in a program that meets the child’s needs.
(3)(a) The department shall develop or contract for diversified and innovative programs to provide rehabilitative treatment, including early intervention and prevention, diversion, comprehensive intake, case management, diagnostic and classification assessments, trauma-informed care, individual and family counseling, family engagement resources and programs, gender-specific programming, shelter care, diversified detention care emphasizing alternatives to secure detention, diversified probation, halfway houses, foster homes, community-based substance abuse treatment services, community-based mental health treatment services, community-based residential and nonresidential programs, mother-infant programs, and environmental programs. The department may pay expenses in support of innovative programs and activities that address identified needs and the well-being of children in the department’s care or under its supervision, subject to the requirements of chapters 215, 216, and 287. Each program shall place particular emphasis on reintegration and conditional release for all children in the program.
(b) The Legislature intends that, whenever possible and reasonable, the department make every effort to consider qualified faith-based organizations on an equal basis with other private organizations when selecting contract providers of services to juveniles.
(c) The department may contract with faith-based organizations on the same basis as any other nongovernmental providers, without impairing the religious character of such organizations. Any faith-based organization may act as a contractor in the delivery of services under any program, on the same basis as any other nongovernmental provider, without impairing the religious character of such organization. A faith-based organization, which has entered into a contract with the department, shall retain its independence from state and local governments with regard to control over the definition, development, practice, and expression of its religious beliefs. The department shall not require a faith-based organization to alter its form of internal government or remove religious art, icons, scripture, or other symbols in order to be eligible to contract as a provider.
(d) The department may include in any services contract a requirement that providers prepare plans describing their implementation of paragraphs (a) and (c). A failure to deliver such plans, if required, may be considered by the department as a breach of the contract that may result in cancellation of the contract.
(4) The department shall maintain continuing cooperation with the Department of Education, the Department of Children and Families, the Department of Economic Opportunity, and the Department of Corrections for the purpose of participating in agreements with respect to dropout prevention and the reduction of suspensions, expulsions, and truancy; increased access to and participation in high school equivalency diploma, vocational, and alternative education programs; and employment training and placement assistance. The cooperative agreements between the departments shall include an interdepartmental plan to cooperate in accomplishing the reduction of inappropriate transfers of children into the adult criminal justice and correctional systems.
(5) The department may provide consulting services and technical assistance to courts, law enforcement agencies, and other state agencies, local governments, and public and private organizations, and may develop or assist in developing community interest and action programs relating to intervention against, diversion from, and prevention and treatment of, delinquent behavior.
(6) In view of the importance of the basic values of work, responsibility, and self-reliance to a child’s return to his or her community, the department may pay a child a reasonable sum of money for work performed while employed in any of the department’s work programs. The work programs shall be designed so that the work benefits the department or the state, their properties, or the child’s community. Funds for payments shall be provided specifically for salaries pursuant to this subsection, and payments shall be made pursuant to a plan approved or rules adopted by the department.
(7) The department shall administer programs and services for children in need of services and families in need of services and shall coordinate its efforts with those of the Federal Government, state agencies, county and municipal governments, private agencies, and child advocacy groups. The department shall establish standards for, providing technical assistance to, and exercising the requisite supervision of, services and programs for children in all state-supported facilities and programs.
(8) The department shall ensure that personnel responsible for the care, supervision, and individualized treatment of children are appropriately apprised of the requirements of this chapter and trained in the specialized areas required to comply with standards established by rule.
(9)(a) The department shall operate a statewide, regionally administered system of detention services for children, in accordance with a comprehensive plan for the regional administration of all detention services in the state. The plan must provide for the maintenance of adequate availability of detention services for all counties. The plan must cover all the department’s operating circuits, with each operating circuit having access to a secure facility and nonsecure detention programs, and the plan may be altered or modified by the Department of Juvenile Justice as necessary.
(b) The department shall adopt rules prescribing standards and requirements with reference to:
1. The construction, equipping, maintenance, staffing, programming, and operation of detention facilities;
2. The treatment, training, and education of children confined in detention facilities;
3. The cleanliness and sanitation of detention facilities;
4. The number of children who may be housed in detention facilities per specified unit of floor space;
5. The quality, quantity, and supply of bedding furnished to children housed in detention facilities;
6. The quality, quantity, and diversity of food served in detention facilities and the manner in which it is served;
7. The furnishing of medical attention and health and comfort items in detention facilities; and
8. The disciplinary treatment administered in detention facilities.
(c) The rules must provide that the time spent by a child in a detention facility must be devoted to educational training and other types of self-motivation and development. The use of televisions, radios, and audio players shall be restricted to educational programming. However, the manager of a detention facility may allow noneducational programs to be used as a reward for good behavior. Exercise must be structured and calisthenic and aerobic in nature and may include weight lifting.
(d) Each programmatic, residential, and service contract or agreement entered into by the department must include a cooperation clause for purposes of complying with the department’s quality assurance requirements, cost-accounting requirements, and the program outcome evaluation requirements.
(10) The department shall implement procedures to ensure that educational support activities are provided throughout the juvenile justice continuum. Such activities may include, but are not limited to, mentoring, tutoring, group discussions, homework assistance, library support, designated reading times, independent living, personal finance, and other appropriate educational activities.
(11) At the secretary’s discretion, the department is authorized to pay up to $5,000 toward the basic funeral expenses for a youth who dies while in the custody of the department and whose parents or guardians are indigent and unable to pay such expenses and for which there is no other source of funding available.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 3, ch. 91-158; s. 18, ch. 94-209; s. 1335, ch. 95-147; s. 2, ch. 95-212; ss. 40, 43, ch. 96-398; s. 159, ch. 97-101; s. 64, ch. 97-238; s. 7, ch. 98-186; s. 25, ch. 98-207; s. 139, ch. 99-3; s. 18, ch. 99-284; s. 46, ch. 2000-135; ss. 33, 41, ch. 2001-125; s. 7, ch. 2001-185; s. 154, ch. 2005-2; s. 74, ch. 2006-120; s. 447, ch. 2011-142; s. 5, ch. 2012-56; s. 356, ch. 2014-19; s. 14, ch. 2014-20; s. 31, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.021; s. 985.404.
985.6015 Shared County/State Juvenile Detention Trust Fund.
(1) The Shared County/State Juvenile Detention Trust Fund is created within the department.
(2) The fund is established for use as a depository for funds to be used for the costs of juvenile detention. Moneys credited to the trust fund shall consist of funds from the counties’ share of the costs for juvenile detention.
History.s. 1, ch. 2005-114; s. 75, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2008-8; s. 2, ch. 2016-152.
Note.Former s. 985.4043.
985.614 Children locked out of the home; interagency cooperation.The department and the Department of Children and Families shall encourage interagency cooperation within each circuit and shall develop comprehensive agreements between the staff and providers for each department in order to coordinate the services provided to children who are locked out of the home and the families of those children.
History.s. 15, ch. 97-281; s. 21, ch. 2000-135; s. 79, ch. 2006-120; s. 358, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 985.2066.
985.618 Educational and career-related programs.
(1)(a) It is the finding of the Legislature that the educational and career-related programs of the Department of Juvenile Justice are uniquely different from other programs operated or conducted by other departments in that it is essential to the state that these programs provide juveniles with useful information and activities that can lead to meaningful employment after release in order to assist in reducing the return of juveniles to the system.
(b) It is further the finding of the Legislature that the mission of a juvenile educational and career-related program is, in order of priority:
1. To provide a joint effort between the department, the juvenile work programs, and educational and career training programs to reinforce relevant education, training, and postrelease job placement, and help reduce recommitment.
2. To serve the security goals of the state through the reduction of idleness of juveniles and the provision of an incentive for good behavior in residential commitment facilities.
3. To teach youth in juvenile justice programs relevant job skills and the fundamentals of a trade in order to prepare them for placement in the workforce.
(c) It is further the finding of the Legislature that a program which duplicates as closely as possible free-work production and service operations in order to aid juveniles in adjustment after release and to prepare juveniles for gainful employment is in the best interest of the state, juveniles, and the general public.
(2)(a) The department is strongly encouraged to require juveniles placed in a high-risk residential, a maximum-risk residential, or a serious/habitual offender program to participate in an educational or career-related program 5 hours per day, 5 days per week. All policies developed by the department relating to this requirement must be consistent with applicable federal, state, and local labor laws and standards, including all laws relating to child labor.
(b) Nothing in this subsection is intended to restore, in whole or in part, the civil rights of any juvenile. No juvenile compensated under this subsection shall be considered as an employee of the state or the department, nor shall such juvenile come within any other provision of the Workers’ Compensation Law.
(3) In adopting or modifying master plans for juvenile work programs and educational and career training programs, and in the administration of the Department of Juvenile Justice, it shall be the objective of the department to develop:
(a) Attitudes favorable to work, the work situation, and a law-abiding life in each juvenile employed in the juvenile work program.
(b) Education and training opportunities that are reasonably broad, but which develop specific work skills.
(c) Programs that motivate juveniles to use their abilities.
(d) Education and training programs that will be of mutual benefit to all governmental jurisdictions of the state by reducing the costs of government to the taxpayers and which integrate all instructional programs into a unified curriculum suitable for all juveniles, but taking account of the different abilities of each juvenile.
(e) A logical sequence of educational or career training, employment by the juvenile work programs, and postrelease job placement for juveniles participating in juvenile work programs.
(4)(a) The Department of Juvenile Justice shall establish guidelines for the operation of juvenile educational and career-related programs, which shall include the following procedures:
1. Participation in the educational and career-related programs shall be on a 5-day-per-week, 5-hour-per-day basis.
2. The education, training, work experience, emotional and mental abilities, and physical capabilities of the juvenile and the duration of the term of placement imposed on the juvenile are to be analyzed before assignment of the juvenile into the various processes best suited for educational or career training.
3. When feasible, the department shall attempt to obtain education or training credit for a juvenile seeking apprenticeship status or a high school diploma or its equivalent.
4. The juvenile may begin in a general education and work skills program and progress to a specific work skills training program, depending upon the ability, desire, and education and work record of the juvenile.
5. Modernization and upgrading of equipment and facilities should include greater automation and improved production techniques to expose juveniles to the latest technological procedures to facilitate their adjustment to real work situations.
(b) Evaluations of juvenile educational and career-related programs shall be conducted according to the following guidelines:
1. Systematic evaluations and quality assurance monitoring shall be implemented, in accordance with s. 985.632(1), (2), and (5), to determine whether the programs are related to successful postrelease adjustments.
2. Operations and policies of the programs shall be reevaluated to determine if they are consistent with their primary objectives.
(c) The department shall seek the advice of private labor and management to:
1. Assist its work programs in the development of statewide policies aimed at innovation and organizational change.
2. Obtain technical and practical assistance, information, and guidance.
3. Encourage the cooperation and involvement of the private sector.
4. Assist in the placement of youth into meaningful jobs upon release from the residential program.
(d) The department and providers are strongly encouraged to work in partnership with local businesses and trade groups in the development and operation of educational and career programs.
(5)(a) The Department of Juvenile Justice may adopt and put into effect an agricultural and industrial production and marketing program to provide training facilities for persons placed in serious/habitual offender, high-risk residential, and maximum-risk residential programs and facilities under the control and supervision of the department. The emphasis of this program shall be to provide juveniles with useful work experience and appropriate job skills that will facilitate their reentry into society and provide an economic benefit to the public and the department through effective utilization of juveniles.
(b) The department is authorized to contract with the private sector for substantial involvement in a juvenile industry program which includes the operation of a direct private sector business within a juvenile facility and the hiring of juvenile workers. The purposes and objectives of this program shall be to:
1. Increase benefits to the general public by reimbursement to the state for a portion of the costs of juvenile residential care.
2. Provide purposeful work for juveniles as a means of reducing tensions caused by confinement.
3. Increase job skills.
4. Provide additional opportunities for rehabilitation of juveniles who are otherwise ineligible to work outside the facilities, such as maximum security juveniles.
5. Develop and establish new models for juvenile facility-based businesses which create jobs approximating conditions of private sector employment.
6. Draw upon the economic base of operations for disposition to the Crimes Compensation Trust Fund.
7. Substantially involve the private sector with its capital, management skills, and expertise in the design, development, and operation of businesses.
(c) Notwithstanding any other law to the contrary, including s. 440.15(8), private sector employers shall provide juveniles participating in juvenile work programs under paragraph (b) with workers’ compensation coverage, and juveniles shall be entitled to the benefits of such coverage. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to allow juveniles to participate in reemployment assistance benefits.
(6) The department, working with providers, shall inventory juvenile vocational and work training programs in use in commitment programs across the state. The inventory shall list the commitment program, the type of vocational or work program offered, the relevant job skills provided, and which programs work with the trades industry to place youth in jobs upon release.
History.s. 35, ch. 96-398; s. 59, ch. 97-238; s. 29, ch. 98-207; s. 32, ch. 99-284; s. 42, ch. 2000-135; s. 90, ch. 2000-158; s. 5, ch. 2001-185; s. 122, ch. 2002-1; s. 39, ch. 2003-412; s. 68, ch. 2004-357; s. 80, ch. 2006-120; s. 86, ch. 2012-30.
Note.Former s. 39.05841; s. 985.315.
985.622 Multiagency plan for career and professional education (CAPE).
(1) The Department of Juvenile Justice and the Department of Education shall, in consultation with the statewide Workforce Development Youth Council, school districts, providers, and others, jointly develop a multiagency plan for career and professional education (CAPE) that establishes the curriculum, goals, and outcome measures for CAPE programs in juvenile justice education programs. The plan must be reviewed annually, revised as appropriate, and include:
(a) Provisions for maximizing appropriate state and federal funding sources, including funds under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act and the Perkins Act.
(b) Provisions for eliminating barriers to increasing occupation-specific job training and high school equivalency examination preparation opportunities.
(c) The responsibilities of both departments and all other appropriate entities.
(d) A detailed implementation schedule.
(2) The plan must define CAPE programming that is appropriate based upon:
(a) The age and assessed educational abilities and goals of the student to be served; and
(b) The typical length of stay and custody characteristics at the juvenile justice education program to which each student is assigned.
(3) The plan must include a definition of CAPE programming that includes the following classifications of juvenile justice education programs that will offer CAPE programming by one of the following types:
(a) Type 1.Programs that teach personal accountability skills and behaviors that are appropriate for students in all age groups and ability levels and that lead to work habits that help maintain employment and living standards.
(b) Type 2.Programs that include Type 1 program content and an orientation to the broad scope of career choices, based upon personal abilities, aptitudes, and interests. Exploring and gaining knowledge of occupation options and the level of effort required to achieve them are essential prerequisites to skill training.
(c) Type 3.Programs that include Type 1 program content and the competencies or the prerequisites needed for entry into a specific occupation.
(4) The plan must also address strategies to facilitate involvement of business and industry in the design, delivery, and evaluation of CAPE programming in juvenile justice education programs, including apprenticeship and work experience programs, mentoring and job shadowing, and other strategies that lead to postrelease employment. Incentives for business involvement, such as tax breaks, bonding, and liability limits should be investigated, implemented where appropriate, or recommended to the Legislature for consideration.
(5) The plan must also evaluate the effect of students’ mobility between juvenile justice education programs and school districts on the students’ educational outcomes and whether the continuity of the students’ education can be better addressed through virtual education.
(6) The Department of Juvenile Justice and the Department of Education shall each align its respective agency policies, practices, technical manuals, contracts, quality-assurance standards, performance-based-budgeting measures, and outcome measures with the plan in juvenile justice education programs by July 31, 2015. Each agency shall provide a report on the implementation of this section to the Governor, the President of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House of Representatives by August 31, 2015.
(7) All provider contracts executed by the Department of Juvenile Justice or the school districts after January 1, 2015, must be aligned with the plan.
(8) The planning and execution of quality assurance reviews conducted by the Department of Education or the Department of Juvenile Justice after August 1, 2015, must be aligned with the plan.
(9) Outcome measures reported by the Department of Juvenile Justice and the Department of Education for students released on or after January 1, 2016, should include outcome measures that conform to the plan.
History.s. 5, ch. 2000-137; s. 31, ch. 2001-125; s. 123, ch. 2002-1; s. 81, ch. 2006-120; s. 172, ch. 2010-102; s. 29, ch. 2014-184; s. 45, ch. 2016-216.
Note.Former s. 985.3155.
985.625 Literacy programs for juvenile offenders.
(1) INTENT.It is the intent of the Legislature that mandatory literacy programs for juvenile offenders committed by the court and placed in residential commitment programs be established. Juvenile offenders shall have the opportunity to achieve reading and writing skills as a means to further their educational and vocational needs and to assist them in discontinuing a life of crime. The literacy programs shall be of high quality, targeted to the juvenile offender’s assessed ability and needs, and use appropriate instructional technology and qualified educational instructors. The programs shall be offered in each residential commitment program operated by or under contract with the department and shall consist of standardized outcomes so that an offender who is transferred to another facility may be able to continue his or her literacy education with minimal disruption.
(2) JUVENILE OFFENDER LITERACY PROGRAMS.The Department of Education, in consultation with the Department of Juvenile Justice, shall identify and, contingent upon specific appropriations, implement and administer juvenile offender literacy programs for each residential commitment program operated by or under contract with the department. These programs shall promote the reading and writing skills of juvenile offenders.
(a)1. An offender 16 years of age or younger who meets the criteria of this section shall be required to participate in a literacy program.
2. An offender 17 years of age or older who is admitted to a residential commitment program on or after July 1, 1998, shall be required to participate in a literacy program. An offender 17 years of age or older who was committed to a residential commitment program before July 1, 1998, may voluntarily participate in a program if the offender otherwise meets the requirements for eligibility.
(b) An offender is eligible to participate in a program if the offender is unable to read and write at a sixth-grade level and is not exempt under subsection (4).
(c) In addition to any other requirements determined by the department, a literacy program shall:
1. Provide for the participation of an offender who may not attain a sixth-grade or higher reading and writing level due to a medical, developmental, or learning disability but who can reasonably be expected to benefit from a literacy program.
2. Require an eligible offender to participate in a minimum of 240 hours of education per year unless the offender attains a sixth-grade or higher reading and writing level or is released from the commitment facility.
3. Require counseling for an offender who has not achieved a sixth-grade or higher reading and writing level after participation in a program. The counseling shall address the benefits of continuing in the program.
4. Include a system of incentives to encourage and reward the performance of an offender in a program.
5. Include a system of disincentives that may include disciplinary action if an offender refuses or intentionally fails to participate in good faith in a program.
6. Provide for reports to be maintained in the offender’s records and forwarded to the appropriate educational facility upon the offender’s release from the commitment facility.
(3) INITIAL ASSESSMENT.When an offender is admitted to a residential commitment facility, the department or a provider under contract with the department shall immediately assess whether the offender has achieved a sixth-grade or higher reading and writing level. An assessment may be conducted at a juvenile assessment center as provided in s. 985.135 as a part of the intake process. If the department or a provider determines that an offender has not achieved a sixth-grade or higher reading and writing level, the offender shall participate in a program if the offender meets the criteria for participation.
(4) OFFENDERS EXEMPT FROM PARTICIPATION.If an offender is not reasonably expected to benefit from a program as a result of a medical, developmental, or learning disability, the offender may not be required to participate in a program. The determination that an offender should be exempt from a program must be made by an appropriate psychologist, psychiatrist, or physician.
(5) EVALUATION AND REPORT.The department, in consultation with the Department of Education, shall develop and implement an evaluation of the literacy program in order to determine the impact of the programs on recidivism. The department shall submit an annual report on the implementation and progress of the programs to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives by January 1 of each year.
History.s. 6, ch. 98-186; s. 137, ch. 99-3; s. 44, ch. 2000-135; s. 6, ch. 2001-185; s. 82, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.317.
985.629 Contracts for the transfer of Florida children in federal custody.To the extent that maintenance costs are borne entirely from federal funds, the department is empowered to contract with federal authorities for the return of Florida children who are in the custody of a federal court or a federal correctional institution for violation of federal law. Such children under contract are to be transferred to the exclusive custody and active control of the department, under the terms, agreements, and provisions of the contract.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 79, ch. 97-238; s. 83, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.065; s. 985.419.
985.632 Quality improvement and cost-effectiveness; Comprehensive Accountability Report.
(1) INTENT.It is the intent of the Legislature that the department establish a performance accountability system for each provider who contracts with the department for the delivery of services to children. The contract shall include both output measures, such as the number of children served, and outcome measures, including program completion and postcompletion recidivism. Each contractor shall report performance results to the department annually. The department’s Bureau of Research and Planning shall summarize performance results from all contracts and report the information to the Legislature annually in the Comprehensive Accountability Report. The report shall:
(a) Ensure that information be provided to decisionmakers in a timely manner so that resources are allocated to programs that achieve desired performance levels.
(b) Provide information about the cost of such programs and their differential effectiveness so that the quality of such programs can be compared and improvements made continually.
(c) Provide information to aid in developing related policy issues and concerns.
(d) Provide information to the public about the effectiveness of such programs in meeting established goals and objectives.
(e) Provide a basis for a system of accountability so that each child is afforded the best programs to meet his or her needs.
(f) Improve service delivery to children through the use of technical assistance.
(g) Modify or eliminate activities or programs that are not effective.
(h) Collect and analyze available statistical data for the purpose of ongoing evaluation of all programs.
(2) DEFINITIONS.As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Program” means any facility or service for youth that is operated by the department or by a provider under contract with the department.
(b) “Program component” means an aggregation of generally related objectives which, because of their special character, related workload, and interrelated output, can logically be considered an entity for purposes of organization, management, accounting, reporting, and budgeting.
(c) “Program group” means a collection of programs with sufficient similarity of functions, services, and youth to permit appropriate comparison amongst programs within the group.
(3) COMPREHENSIVE ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT.The department, in consultation with contract service providers, shall develop and use a standard methodology for annually measuring, evaluating, and reporting program outputs and youth outcomes for each program and program group. The standard methodology must:
(a) Include common terminology and operational definitions for measuring the performance of system and program administration, program outputs, and program outcomes.
(b) Specify program outputs for each program and for each program group within the juvenile justice continuum.
(c) Specify desired child outcomes and methods by which to measure child outcomes for each program and program group.
(4) COST-EFFECTIVENESS MODEL.The department, in consultation with the Office of Economic and Demographic Research and contract service providers, shall develop a cost-effectiveness model and apply the model to each commitment program.
(a) The cost-effectiveness model shall compare program costs to expected and actual child recidivism rates. It is the intent of the Legislature that continual development efforts take place to improve the validity and reliability of the cost-effectiveness model.
(b) The department shall rank commitment programs based on the cost-effectiveness model, performance measures, and adherence to quality improvement standards and shall report this data in the annual Comprehensive Accountability Report.
(c) Based on reports of the department on child outcomes and program outputs and on the department’s most recent cost-effectiveness rankings, the department may terminate a program operated by the department or a provider if the program has failed to achieve a minimum standard of program effectiveness. This paragraph does not preclude the department from terminating a contract as provided under this section or as otherwise provided by law or contract, and does not limit the department’s authority to enter into or terminate a contract.
(d) In collaboration with the Office of Economic and Demographic Research, and contract service providers, the department shall develop a work plan to refine the cost-effectiveness model so that the model is consistent with the performance-based program budgeting measures approved by the Legislature to the extent the department deems appropriate. The department shall notify the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability of any meetings to refine the model.
(e) Contingent upon specific appropriation, the department, in consultation with the Office of Economic and Demographic Research, and contract service providers, shall:
1. Construct a profile of each commitment program that uses the results of the quality improvement data portion of the Comprehensive Accountability Report required by this section, the cost-effectiveness data portion of the Comprehensive Accountability Report required in this subsection, and other reports available to the department.
2. Target, for a more comprehensive evaluation, any commitment program that has achieved consistently high, low, or disparate ratings in the reports required under subparagraph 1. and target, for technical assistance, any commitment program that has achieved low or disparate ratings in the reports required under subparagraph 1.
3. Identify the essential factors that contribute to the high, low, or disparate program ratings.
4. Use the results of these evaluations in developing or refining juvenile justice programs or program models, child outcomes and program outputs, provider contracts, quality improvement standards, and the cost-effectiveness model.
(5) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT.The department shall:
(a) Establish a comprehensive quality improvement system for each program operated by the department or operated by a provider under contract with the department. Each contract entered into by the department must provide for quality improvement.
(b) Provide operational definitions of and criteria for quality improvement for each specific program component.
(c) Establish quality improvement goals and objectives for each specific program component.
(d) Establish the information and specific data elements required for the quality improvement program.
(e) Develop a quality improvement manual of specific, standardized terminology and procedures to be followed by each program.
(f) Evaluate each program operated by the department or a provider under a contract with the department annually and establish minimum standards for each program component. If a provider fails to meet the established minimum standards, such failure shall cause the department to cancel the provider’s contract unless the provider achieves compliance with minimum standards within 6 months or unless there are documented extenuating circumstances. In addition, the department may not contract with the same provider for the canceled service for a period of 12 months. If a department-operated program fails to meet the established minimum standards, the department must take necessary and sufficient steps to ensure and document program changes to achieve compliance with the established minimum standards. If the department-operated program fails to achieve compliance with the established minimum standards within 6 months and if there are no documented extenuating circumstances, the department must notify the Executive Office of the Governor and the Legislature of the corrective action taken. Appropriate corrective action may include, but is not limited to:
1. Contracting out for the services provided in the program;
2. Initiating appropriate disciplinary action against all employees whose conduct or performance is deemed to have materially contributed to the program’s failure to meet established minimum standards;
3. Redesigning the program; or
4. Realigning the program.
(6) COMPREHENSIVE ACCOUNTABILITY REPORT SUBMISSION.The department shall submit the Comprehensive Accountability Report to the President of the Senate, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Minority Leader of each house of the Legislature, the appropriate substantive and fiscal committees of each house of the Legislature, and the Governor, no later than February 1 of each year. The Comprehensive Accountability Report must contain, at a minimum, for each specific program component: a comprehensive description of the population served by the program; a specific description of the services provided by the program; cost; a comparison of expenditures to federal and state funding; immediate and long-range concerns; and recommendations to maintain, expand, improve, modify, or eliminate each program component so that changes in services lead to enhancement in program quality. The department shall ensure the reliability and validity of the information contained in the report.
(7) ONGOING EVAULATIONS; REPORTS.The department shall collect and analyze available statistical data for the purpose of ongoing evaluation of all programs. The department shall provide the Legislature with necessary information and reports to enable the Legislature to make informed decisions regarding the effectiveness of, and any needed changes in, services, programs, policies, and laws.
History.s. 72, ch. 97-238; s. 28, ch. 98-207; s. 34, ch. 2001-125; s. 1053, ch. 2002-387; s. 7, ch. 2004-333; s. 84, ch. 2006-120; s. 173, ch. 2010-102; s. 53, ch. 2010-117; s. 33, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.412.
985.64 Rulemaking.
(1) The department shall adopt rules pursuant to ss. 120.536(1) and 120.54 to implement the provisions of this chapter. Such rules may not conflict with the Florida Rules of Juvenile Procedure. All rules and policies must conform to accepted standards of care and treatment.
(2) The department shall adopt rules to ensure the effective provision of health services to youth in facilities or programs operated or contracted by the department. The rules shall address the delivery of the following:
(a) Ordinary medical care.
(b) Mental health services.
(c) Substance abuse treatment services.
(d) Services to youth with developmental disabilities.

The department shall coordinate its rulemaking with the Department of Children and Families and the Agency for Persons with Disabilities to ensure that the rules adopted under this section do not encroach upon the substantive jurisdiction of those agencies. The department shall include the above-mentioned entities in the rulemaking process, as appropriate. This subsection does not supersede the provisions governing consent to treatment and services found in ss. 39.407, 743.0645, and 985.18, or otherwise provided by law.

History.s. 65, ch. 97-238; s. 230, ch. 98-200; s. 86, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2010-123; s. 359, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 985.405.
985.644 Departmental contracting powers; personnel standards and investigation.
(1) The department may contract with the Federal Government, other state departments and agencies, county and municipal governments and agencies, public and private agencies, and private individuals and corporations in carrying out the purposes of, and the responsibilities established in, this chapter.
(a) Each contract entered into by the department for services delivered on an appointment or intermittent basis by a provider that does not have regular custodial responsibility for children and each contract with a school for services must ensure that all owners, operators, and personnel who have direct contact with children are subject to level 2 background screening pursuant to chapter 435.
(b) A volunteer who assists the department or any program for children on an intermittent basis for less than 10 hours per month need not be screened if a person who meets the screening requirement of this section is always present and has the volunteer in his or her line of sight.
(2) The department shall adopt a rule establishing a procedure to provide notice of policy changes that affect contracted delinquency services and programs. A policy is defined as an operational requirement that applies to only the specified contracted delinquency service or program. The procedure must include:
(a) Public notice of policy development.
(b) Opportunity for public comment on the proposed policy.
(c) Assessment for fiscal impact upon the department and providers.
(d) The department’s response to comments received.
(3)(a) All employees of the department and all personnel of contract providers for any program for children, including all owners, operators, employees, persons who have access to confidential juvenile records, and volunteers, must complete:
1. A level 2 employment screening pursuant to chapter 435 before employment. The security background investigation conducted under this section must ensure that, in addition to the disqualifying offenses listed in s. 435.04, no person subject to the background screening provisions of this section has an arrest awaiting final disposition for, been found guilty of, regardless of adjudication, or entered a plea of nolo contendere or guilty to, or been adjudicated delinquent and the record has not been sealed or expunged for, any offense prohibited under the following provisions of state law or similar laws of another jurisdiction:
a. Section 784.07, relating to assault or battery of law enforcement officers, firefighters, emergency medical care providers, public transit employees or agents, or other specified officers.
b. Section 817.568, relating to criminal use of personal identification information.
2. A national criminal records check by the Federal Bureau of Investigation every 5 years following the date of the person’s employment.
(b) Law enforcement, correctional, and correctional probation officers, certified pursuant to s. 943.13, are not required to submit to level 2 screenings as long as they are currently employed by a law enforcement agency or correctional facility. The department shall electronically submit to the Department of Law Enforcement:
1. Fingerprint information obtained during the employment screening required by subparagraph (a)1.
2. Fingerprint information for all persons employed by the department, or by a provider under contract with the department, in delinquency facilities, services, or programs if such fingerprint information has not previously been submitted pursuant to this section.
(c) All fingerprint information electronically submitted to the Department of Law Enforcement under paragraph (b) shall be retained by the Department of Law Enforcement and entered into the statewide automated biometric identification system authorized by s. 943.05(2)(b). Thereafter, such fingerprint information shall be available for all purposes and uses authorized for arrest fingerprint information entered into the statewide automated biometric identification system pursuant to s. 943.051 until the fingerprint information is removed pursuant to paragraph (e). The Department of Law Enforcement shall search all arrest fingerprint information received pursuant to s. 943.051 against the fingerprint information entered into the statewide automated biometric identification system pursuant to this subsection. Any arrest records identified as a result of the search shall be reported to the department in the manner and timeframe established by the Department of Law Enforcement by rule.
(d) The department shall pay an annual fee to the Department of Law Enforcement for its costs resulting from the fingerprint information retention services required by this subsection. The amount of the annual fee and procedures for the submission and retention of fingerprint information and for the dissemination of search results shall be established by the Department of Law Enforcement by a rule that is applicable to the department individually pursuant to this subsection or that is applicable to the department and other employing agencies pursuant to rulemaking authority otherwise provided by law.
(e) The department shall notify the Department of Law Enforcement when a person whose fingerprint information is retained by the Department of Law Enforcement under this subsection is no longer employed by the department, or by a provider under contract with the department, in a delinquency facility, service, or program. This notice shall be provided by the department to the Department of Law Enforcement within 6 months after the date of the change in the person’s employment status. Fingerprint information for persons identified by the department in the notice shall be removed from the statewide automated biometric identification system.
(4) The department may grant exemptions from disqualification from working with children as provided in s. 435.07.
(5) The department may adopt rules to describe the procedure and requirements necessary to administer the employment screening and fingerprint retention services for all employees of the department and all personnel of contract providers for any program for children, including all owners, operators, employees, and volunteers, including the collection of associated fees.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 3, ch. 91-33; s. 70, ch. 91-45; s. 15, ch. 91-57; s. 6, ch. 93-156; s. 15, ch. 94-134; s. 15, ch. 94-135; s. 9, ch. 95-158; s. 31, ch. 95-228; s. 118, ch. 95-418; s. 2, ch. 96-268; ss. 1, 67, ch. 97-238; s. 12, ch. 2001-125; s. 1, ch. 2003-29; ss. 33, 64, ch. 2004-267; s. 13, ch. 2005-263; s. 87, ch. 2006-120; s. 48, ch. 2010-114; s. 65, ch. 2013-116; s. 34, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Subsection (1) former s. 985.01(2). Subsections (2)-(6) former s. 39.076; s. 985.407.
985.6441 Health care services.
(1) As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Health care provider” has the same meaning as provided in s. 766.105.
(b) “Hospital” means a hospital licensed under chapter 395.
(2) When compensating health care providers, the department must comply with the following reimbursement limitations:
(a) Payments to a hospital or a health care provider may not exceed 110 percent of the Medicare allowable rate for any health care services provided if there is no contract between the department and the hospital or the health care provider providing services at a hospital.
(b)1. The department may continue to make payments for health care services at the contracted rates for contracts executed before July 1, 2014, through the current term of the contract if a contract has been executed between the department and a hospital or a health care provider providing services at a hospital.
2. Payments may not exceed 110 percent of the Medicare allowable rate after the current term of the contract expires or after the contract is renewed during the 2013-2014 fiscal year.
(c) Payments may not exceed 110 percent of the Medicare allowable rate under a contract executed on or after July 1, 2014, between the department and a hospital or a health care provider providing services at a hospital.
(d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a)-(c), the department may pay up to 125 percent of the Medicare allowable rate for health care services at a hospital that reports, or has reported, a negative operating margin for the previous fiscal year to the Agency for Health Care Administration through hospital-audited financial data.
History.s. 35, ch. 2014-162.
985.645 Protective action response.
(1) For purposes of this section, the term:
(a) “Direct care” means direct contact with youth for the purpose of providing care, supervision, custody, or control of youth in a detention facility, delinquency program, or commitment program within any restrictiveness level, which is operated by the department or by a provider under contract with the department.
(b) “Employee” means any person who exercises direct care. The term “employee” does not include a licensed medical professional, mental health counselor, substance abuse counselor, or social services counselor whose primary responsibilities are to provide treatment to youth in a detention facility, delinquency program, or commitment program within any restrictiveness level, which is operated by the department or by a provider under contract with the department.
(c) “Protective Action Response policy” means the policy governing the use of verbal and physical intervention techniques, mechanical restraints, aerosol and chemical agents, and Tasers by employees.
(d) “Taser” means any mechanism that is designed to emit or project an electronic, magnetic, or other type of charge or shock for the purpose of temporarily incapacitating a person.
(2) The department shall adopt rules under ss. 120.536(1) and 120.54 that:
(a) Establish a Protective Action Response policy that:
1. Defines the authorized level of response by an employee to each level of verbal or physical resistance by a youth.
2. Requires the use of verbal intervention techniques as the initial response by an employee to verbal or physical resistance by a youth, except where physical intervention techniques are necessary to prevent:
a. Physical harm to the youth, employee, or another person;
b. Property damage; or
c. The youth from escaping or absconding from lawful supervision.
3. Defines authorized physical intervention techniques and the situations under which employees may use these techniques for youth. Pain compliance techniques and use of less than lethal force shall be prohibited, except where necessary to prevent:
a. Physical harm to the youth, employee, or another person;
b. Property damage; or
c. The youth from escaping or absconding from lawful supervision.

Lethal force shall be prohibited, except where necessary to protect the employee or another person from an imminent threat of great bodily harm or death. Prior authorization by an employee’s supervisor for the use of physical intervention techniques shall be obtained when practical.

4. Defines authorized use of mechanical restraints and the situations under which employees may use such restraints on youth. Prohibited uses of mechanical restraints shall include the use of neck restraints and the securing of a youth to a fixed object. Supervision requirements for youth who are secured in mechanical restraints shall include constant and direct visual monitoring by an employee for purposes of ensuring youth safety and ascertaining indications by the youth that restraints are no longer necessary. Prior authorization by an employee’s supervisor for the use of mechanical restraints shall be obtained when practical.
5. Prohibits the use of aerosol or chemical agents, including, but not limited to, oleoresin capsicum spray and ammonia capsules, on a youth unless required for medical treatment of the youth by a licensed medical professional.
6. Prohibits the use of a Taser on a youth.
(b) Establish training curricula for protective action response certification of employees and instructors. The training curriculum for employee certification shall, at a minimum, require the employee to:
1. Complete instruction on the Protective Action Response policy.
2. Obtain a passing score:
a. On a written examination that tests the employee’s knowledge and understanding of the Protective Action Response policy.
b. During an evaluation by an instructor of the employee’s physically demonstrated ability to implement the Protective Action Response policy.
(c) Require training curricula for protective action response certification of employees to be taught by instructors who have been certified under the training curriculum for protective action response certification of instructors.
(d) Require each employee who was not certified by the department in protective action response prior to July 1, 2006, to receive his or her protective action response certification by September 30, 2006, or within 90 calendar days following his or her date of hire, whichever date is later.
(e) Require any employee who exercises direct care prior to receiving his or her protective action response certification to be directly supervised by an employee who has received his or her protective action response certification.
History.s. 8, ch. 2006-62; s. 22, ch. 2010-113.
985.648 Consultants.The department may hire consultants to advise and confer with the judges of the circuit courts upon request of any such court and for the purpose of advising the department on programs, facilities, institutions, care, supervision, and all other services and treatment for children committed to the department’s care under this chapter.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 68, ch. 97-238; s. 88, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.075; s. 985.408.
985.652 Participation of certain programs in the State Risk Management Trust Fund.Pursuant to s. 284.30, the Division of Risk Management of the Department of Financial Services is authorized to insure a private agency, individual, or corporation operating a state-owned training school under a contract to carry out the purposes and responsibilities of any program of the department. The coverage authorized herein shall be under the same general terms and conditions as the department is insured for its responsibilities under chapter 284.
History.s. 69, ch. 97-238; s. 26, ch. 2000-122; s. 1941, ch. 2003-261; s. 89, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.409.
985.66 Juvenile justice training; staff development and training; Juvenile Justice Training Trust Fund.
(1) LEGISLATIVE PURPOSE.In order to enable the state to provide a systematic approach to staff development and training for judges, state attorneys, public defenders, law enforcement officers, school district personnel, and juvenile justice program staff that will meet the needs of such persons in their discharge of duties while at the same time meeting the requirements for the American Correction Association accreditation by the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections, it is the purpose of the Legislature to require the department to establish, maintain, and oversee the operation of juvenile justice training, programs, and courses in the state. The purpose of the Legislature in establishing staff development and training programs is to provide employees of the department, any private or public entity, or contract providers who provide services or care for children under the responsibility of the department with the knowledge and skills needed to appropriately interact with children and provide such care and services; to positively impact the recidivism of children in the juvenile justice system; and to afford greater protection of the public through an improved level of services delivered by a professionally trained juvenile justice staff to children who are alleged to be or who have been found to be delinquent.
(2) STAFF DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING.The department shall:
(a) Designate the number and location of the training programs and courses; assess, design, develop, implement, evaluate, maintain, and update the curriculum to be used in the training of juvenile justice staff; establish timeframes for participation in and completion of training by juvenile justice staff; develop, implement, score, analyze, maintain, and update job-related examinations; develop, implement, analyze, and update the types and frequencies for evaluations of the training programs, courses, and instructors; and manage the budget and contracts for all the training deliverables.
(b) Establish uniform minimum job-related preservice and inservice training courses and examinations for juvenile justice program staff.
(c) Consult and cooperate with the state or any political subdivision; any private entity or contractor; and with private and public universities, colleges, community colleges, and other educational institutions concerning the development of juvenile justice training and programs or courses of instruction, including, but not limited to, education and training in the areas of juvenile justice.
(d) Enter into contracts and agreements with other agencies, organizations, associations, corporations, individuals, or federal agencies as necessary in the execution of the powers of the department or the performance of its duties.
(3) JUVENILE JUSTICE TRAINING PROGRAM.The department shall establish a certifiable program for juvenile justice training pursuant to this section, and all department program staff and providers who deliver direct care services pursuant to contract with the department shall be required to participate in and successfully complete the department-approved program of training pertinent to their areas of responsibility. Judges, state attorneys, and public defenders, law enforcement officers, school district personnel, and employees of contract providers who provide services or care for children under the responsibility of the department may participate in such training program. For the juvenile justice program staff, the department shall, based on a job-task analysis:
(a) Design, implement, maintain, evaluate, and revise a basic training program, including a competency-based examination, for the purpose of providing minimum employment training qualifications for all juvenile justice personnel. All program staff of the department and providers who deliver direct-care services who are hired after October 1, 1999, must meet the following minimum requirements:
1. Be at least 19 years of age.
2. Be a high school graduate or its equivalent as determined by the department.
3. Not have been convicted of any felony or a misdemeanor involving perjury or a false statement, or have received a dishonorable discharge from any of the Armed Forces of the United States. Any person who, after September 30, 1999, pleads guilty or nolo contendere to or is found guilty of any felony or a misdemeanor involving perjury or false statement is not eligible for employment, notwithstanding suspension of sentence or withholding of adjudication. Notwithstanding this subparagraph, any person who pled nolo contendere to a misdemeanor involving a false statement before October 1, 1999, and who has had such record of that plea sealed or expunged is not ineligible for employment for that reason.
4. Abide by all of s. 985.644(1) regarding fingerprinting and background investigations and other screening requirements for personnel.
5. Execute and submit to the department an affidavit-of-application form, adopted by the department, attesting to his or her compliance with subparagraphs 1.-4. The affidavit must be executed under oath and constitutes an official statement under s. 837.06. The affidavit must include conspicuous language that the intentional false execution of the affidavit constitutes a misdemeanor of the second degree. The employing agency shall retain the affidavit.
(b) Design, implement, maintain, evaluate, and revise an advanced training program, including a competency-based examination for each training course, which is intended to enhance knowledge, skills, and abilities related to job performance.
(c) Design, implement, maintain, evaluate, and revise a career development training program, including a competency-based examination for each training course. Career development courses are intended to prepare personnel for promotion.
(d) The department is encouraged to design, implement, maintain, evaluate, and revise juvenile justice training courses, or to enter into contracts for such training courses, that are intended to provide for the safety and well-being of both citizens and juvenile offenders.
(4) JUVENILE JUSTICE TRAINING TRUST FUND.
(a) There is created within the State Treasury a Juvenile Justice Training Trust Fund to be used by the department for the purpose of funding the development and updating of a job-task analysis of juvenile justice personnel; the development, implementation, and updating of job-related training courses and examinations; and the cost of juvenile justice training courses.
(b) One dollar from every noncriminal traffic infraction collected pursuant to ss. 318.14(10)(b) and 318.18 shall be deposited into the Juvenile Justice Training Trust Fund.
(c) In addition to the funds generated by paragraph (b), the trust fund may receive funds from any other public or private source.
(d) Funds that are not expended by the end of the budget cycle or through a supplemental budget approved by the department shall revert to the trust fund.
(5) ESTABLISHMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE TRAINING ACADEMIES.The number, location, and establishment of juvenile justice training academies shall be determined by the department.
(6) SCHOLARSHIPS AND STIPENDS.The department shall establish criteria to award scholarships or stipends to qualified juvenile justice personnel who are residents of the state who want to pursue a bachelor’s or associate in arts degree in juvenile justice or a related field. The department shall handle the administration of the scholarship or stipend. The Department of Education shall handle the notes issued for the payment of the scholarships or stipends. All scholarship and stipend awards shall be paid from the Juvenile Justice Training Trust Fund upon vouchers approved by the Department of Education and properly certified by the Chief Financial Officer. Prior to the award of a scholarship or stipend, the juvenile justice employee must agree in writing to practice her or his profession in juvenile justice or a related field for 1 month for each month of grant or to repay the full amount of the scholarship or stipend together with interest at the rate of 5 percent per annum over a period not to exceed 10 years. Repayment shall be made payable to the state for deposit into the Juvenile Justice Training Trust Fund.
(7) PARTICIPATION OF CERTAIN PROGRAMS IN THE STATE RISK MANAGEMENT TRUST FUND.Pursuant to s. 284.30, the Division of Risk Management of the Department of Financial Services is authorized to insure a private agency, individual, or corporation operating a state-owned training school under a contract to carry out the purposes and responsibilities of any program of the department. The coverage authorized herein shall be under the same general terms and conditions as the department is insured for its responsibilities under chapter 284.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 3, ch. 91-74; s. 21, ch. 91-201; s. 5, ch. 91-429; s. 21, ch. 94-209; s. 1336, ch. 95-147; s. 53, ch. 95-280; s. 1, ch. 97-215; s. 66, ch. 97-238; s. 26, ch. 98-207; s. 19, ch. 99-284; s. 25, ch. 2000-122; s. 48, ch. 2000-135; s. 1940, ch. 2003-261; s. 90, ch. 2006-120; s. 9, ch. 2006-296; s. 13, ch. 2011-70; s. 118, ch. 2013-18; s. 36, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.024; s. 985.406.
985.664 Juvenile justice circuit advisory boards.
(1) There is authorized a juvenile justice circuit advisory board to be established in each of the 20 judicial circuits. Except in single-county circuits, each juvenile justice circuit advisory board shall have a county organization representing each of the counties in the circuit. The county organization shall report directly to the juvenile justice circuit advisory board on the juvenile justice needs of the county. The purpose of each juvenile justice circuit advisory board is to provide advice and direction to the department in the development and implementation of juvenile justice programs and to work collaboratively with the department in seeking program improvements and policy changes to address the emerging and changing needs of Florida’s youth who are at risk of delinquency.
(2) The duties and responsibilities of a juvenile justice circuit advisory board include, but are not limited to:
(a) Developing a comprehensive plan for the circuit. The initial circuit plan shall be submitted to the department no later than December 31, 2014, and no later than June 30 every 3 years thereafter. The department shall prescribe a format and content requirements for the submission of the comprehensive plan.
(b) Participating in the facilitation of interagency cooperation and information sharing.
(c) Providing recommendations for public or private grants to be administered by one of the community partners that support one or more components of the comprehensive circuit plan.
(d) Providing recommendations to the department in the evaluation of prevention and early intervention grant programs, including the Community Juvenile Justice Partnership Grant program established in s. 985.676 and proceeds from the Invest in Children license plate annual use fees.
(e) Providing an annual report to the department describing the board’s activities. The department shall prescribe a format and content requirements for submission of annual reports. The annual report must be submitted to the department no later than August 1 of each year.
(3) Each juvenile justice circuit advisory board shall have a minimum of 16 members. The membership of each board must reflect:
(a) The circuit’s geography and population distribution.
(b) Diversity in the judicial circuit.
(4) Each member of the juvenile justice circuit advisory board must be approved by the Secretary of Juvenile Justice, except those members listed in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g), and (h). The juvenile justice circuit advisory boards established under subsection (1) must include as members:
(a) The state attorney or his or her designee.
(b) The public defender or his or her designee.
(c) The chief judge or his or her designee.
(d) A representative of the corresponding circuit or regional entity of the Department of Children and Families.
(e) The sheriff or the sheriff’s designee from each county in the circuit.
(f) A police chief or his or her designee from each county in the circuit.
(g) A county commissioner or his or her designee from each county in the circuit.
(h) The superintendent of each school district in the circuit or his or her designee.
(i) A representative from the workforce organization of each county in the circuit.
(j) A representative of the business community.
(k) A youth representative who has had an experience with the juvenile justice system and is not older than 21 years of age.
(l) A representative of the faith community.
(m) A health services representative who specializes in mental health care, victim-service programs, or victims of crimes.
(n) A parent or family member of a youth who has been involved with the juvenile justice system.
(o) Up to five representatives from any of the following who are not otherwise represented in this subsection:
1. Community leaders.
2. Youth-serving coalitions.
(5) When a vacancy in the office of the chair occurs, the juvenile justice circuit advisory board shall appoint a new chair, who must meet the board membership requirements in subsection (4). The chair shall appoint members to vacant seats within 45 days after the vacancy and submit the appointments to the department for approval. The chair shall serve at the pleasure of the Secretary of Juvenile Justice.
(6) A member may not serve more than three consecutive 2-year terms, except those members listed in paragraphs (4)(a), (b), (c), (e), (f), (g), and (h). A former member who has not served on the juvenile justice circuit advisory board for 2 years is eligible to serve on the juvenile justice circuit advisory board again.
(7) At least half of the voting members of the juvenile justice circuit advisory board constitutes a quorum. A quorum must be present in order for the board to vote on a measure or position.
(8) In order for a juvenile justice circuit advisory board measure or position to pass, it must receive more than 50 percent of the vote.
(9) Each juvenile justice circuit advisory board must provide for the establishment of an executive committee of not more than 10 members. The duties and authority of the executive committee must be addressed in the bylaws.
(10) Each juvenile justice circuit advisory board shall have bylaws. The department shall prescribe a format and content requirements for the bylaws. All bylaws must be approved by the department. The bylaws shall address at least the following issues: election or appointment of officers; filling of vacant positions; meeting attendance requirements; and the establishment and duties of an executive committee.
(11) Members of juvenile justice circuit advisory boards are subject to part III of chapter 112.
History.s. 50, ch. 2000-135; s. 12, ch. 2005-263; s. 91, ch. 2006-120; s. 1, ch. 2013-118; s. 37, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.4135.
985.668 Innovation zones.The department shall encourage each of the juvenile justice circuit boards to propose at least one innovation zone within the circuit for the purpose of implementing any experimental, pilot, or demonstration project that furthers the legislatively established goals of the department. An innovation zone is a defined geographic area such as a circuit, commitment region, county, municipality, service delivery area, school campus, or neighborhood providing a laboratory for the research, development, and testing of the applicability and efficacy of model programs, policy options, and new technologies for the department.
(1)(a) The juvenile justice circuit board shall submit a proposal for an innovation zone to the secretary. If the purpose of the proposed innovation zone is to demonstrate that specific statutory goals can be achieved more effectively by using procedures that require modification of existing rules, policies, or procedures, the proposal may request the secretary to waive such existing rules, policies, or procedures or to otherwise authorize use of alternative procedures or practices. Waivers of such existing rules, policies, or procedures must comply with applicable state or federal law.
(b) For innovation zone proposals that the secretary determines require changes to state law, the secretary may submit a request for a waiver from such laws, together with any proposed changes to state law, to the chairs of the appropriate legislative committees for consideration.
(c) For innovation zone proposals that the secretary determines require waiver of federal law, the secretary may submit a request for such waivers to the applicable federal agency.
(2) An innovation zone project may not have a duration of more than 2 years, but the secretary may grant an extension.
(3) Before implementing an innovation zone under this subsection, the secretary shall, in conjunction with the Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability, develop measurable and valid objectives for such zone within a negotiated reasonable period of time. Moneys designated for an innovation zone in one operating circuit may not be used to fund an innovation zone in another operating circuit.
(4) Program models for innovation zone projects include, but are not limited to:
(a) A forestry alternative work program that provides selected juvenile offenders an opportunity to serve in a forestry work program as an alternative to incarceration, in which offenders assist in wildland firefighting, enhancement of state land management, environmental enhancement, and land restoration.
(b) A collaborative public/private dropout prevention partnership that trains personnel from both the public and private sectors of a target community who are identified and brought into the school system as an additional resource for addressing problems which inhibit and retard learning, including abuse, neglect, financial instability, pregnancy, and substance abuse.
(c) A support services program that provides economically disadvantaged youth with support services, jobs, training, counseling, mentoring, and prepaid postsecondary tuition scholarships.
(d) A juvenile offender job training program that offers an opportunity for juvenile offenders to develop educational and job skills in a 12-month to 18-month nonresidential training program, teaching the offenders skills such as computer-aided design, modular panel construction, and heavy vehicle repair and maintenance which will readily transfer to the private sector, thereby promoting responsibility and productivity.
(e) An infant mortality prevention program that is designed to discourage unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and alcohol or drug consumption, reduce the incidence of babies born prematurely or with low birth weight, reduce health care cost by enabling babies to be safely discharged earlier from the hospital, reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect, and improve parenting and problem-solving skills.
(f) A regional crime prevention and intervention program that serves as an umbrella agency to coordinate and replicate existing services to at-risk children, first-time juvenile offenders, youth crime victims, and school dropouts.
(g) An alternative education outreach school program that serves delinquent repeat offenders between 14 and 18 years of age who have demonstrated failure in school and who are referred by the juvenile court.
(h) A drug treatment and prevention program that provides early identification of children with alcohol or drug problems to facilitate treatment, comprehensive screening and assessment, family involvement, and placement options.
(i) A community resource mother or father program that emphasizes parental responsibility for the behavior of children, and requires the availability of counseling services for children at high risk for delinquent behavior.
History.s. 76, ch. 97-238; s. 53, ch. 2000-135; s. 140, ch. 2001-266; s. 92, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.416.
985.672 Direct-support organization; definition; use of property; board of directors; audit.
(1) DEFINITION.As used in this section, the term “direct-support organization” means an organization whose sole purpose is to support the juvenile justice system and which is:
(a) A corporation not-for-profit incorporated under chapter 617 and which is approved by the Department of State;
(b) Organized and operated to conduct programs and activities; to raise funds; to request and receive grants, gifts, and bequests of moneys; to acquire, receive, hold, invest, and administer, in its own name, securities, funds, objects of value, or other property, real or personal; and to make expenditures to or for the direct or indirect benefit of the Department of Juvenile Justice or the juvenile justice system operated by a county commission or a circuit board;
(c) Determined by the Department of Juvenile Justice to be consistent with the goals of the juvenile justice system, in the best interest of the state, and in accordance with the adopted goals and mission of the Department of Juvenile Justice.

Expenditures of the organization shall be used for the prevention and amelioration of juvenile delinquency. The expenditures of the direct-support organization may not be used for the purpose of lobbying as defined in s. 11.045.

(2) CONTRACT.The direct-support organization shall operate under written contract with the department. The contract must provide for:
(a) Approval of the articles of incorporation and bylaws of the direct-support organization by the department.
(b) Submission of an annual budget for the approval of the department.
(c) Certification by the department that the direct-support organization is complying with the terms of the contract and in a manner consistent with the goals and purposes of the department and in the best interest of the state. Such certification must be made annually and reported in the official minutes of a meeting of the direct-support organization.
(d) The reversion of moneys and property held in trust by the direct-support organization for the benefit of the juvenile justice system to the state if the department ceases to exist or to the department if the direct-support organization is no longer approved to operate for the department, a county commission, or a circuit board or if the direct-support organization ceases to exist;
(e) The fiscal year of the direct-support organization, which must begin July 1 of each year and end June 30 of the following year;
(f) The disclosure of material provisions of the contract, and the distinction between the department and the direct-support organization, to donors of gifts, contributions, or bequests, including such disclosure on all promotional and fundraising publications.
(3) BOARD OF DIRECTORS.The Secretary of Juvenile Justice shall appoint a board of directors of the direct-support organization. Members of the organization must include representatives from businesses, representatives from each of the juvenile justice service districts, and one representative appointed at large.
(4) USE OF PROPERTY.The department may permit, without charge, appropriate use of fixed property, facilities, and personnel services of the juvenile justice system by the direct-support organization, subject to this section. For the purposes of this subsection, the term “personnel services” includes full-time or part-time personnel, as well as payroll processing services.
(a) The department may prescribe any condition with which the direct-support organization must comply in order to use fixed property or facilities of the juvenile justice system.
(b) The department may not permit the use of any fixed property or facilities of the juvenile justice system by the direct-support organization if it does not provide equal membership and employment opportunities to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, sex, age, or national origin.
(c) The department shall adopt rules prescribing the procedures by which the direct-support organization is governed and any conditions with which a direct-support organization must comply to use property or facilities of the department.
(5) DEPOSIT OF FUNDS.Any moneys may be held in a separate depository account in the name of the direct-support organization and subject to the provisions of the contract with the department.
(6) AUDIT.The direct-support organization shall provide for an annual financial audit in accordance with s. 215.981.
(7) REPEAL.This section is repealed October 1, 2018, unless reviewed and saved from repeal by the Legislature.
History.s. 20, ch. 99-284; s. 51, ch. 2000-135; s. 139, ch. 2001-266; s. 92, ch. 2006-120; s. 29, ch. 2014-96; s. 38, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.4145.
985.676 Community juvenile justice partnership grants.
(1) GRANTS; CRITERIA.
(a) In order to encourage the development of a circuit juvenile justice plan and the development and implementation of circuit interagency agreements under s. 985.664, the community juvenile justice partnership grant program is established and shall be administered by the department.
(b) In awarding these grants, the department shall consider applications that at a minimum provide for the following:
1. The participation of the agencies and programs needed to implement the project or program for which the applicant is applying;
2. The reduction of truancy and in-school and out-of-school suspensions and expulsions, the enhancement of school safety, and other delinquency early-intervention and diversion services;
3. The number of youths from 10 through 17 years of age within the geographic area to be served by the program, giving those geographic areas having the highest number of youths from 10 to 17 years of age priority for selection;
4. The extent to which the program targets high-juvenile-crime neighborhoods and those public schools serving juveniles from high-crime neighborhoods;
5. The validity and cost-effectiveness of the program; and
6. The degree to which the program is located in and managed by local leaders of the target neighborhoods and public schools serving the target neighborhoods.
(c) In addition, the department may consider the following criteria in awarding grants:
1. The circuit juvenile justice plan and any county juvenile justice plans that are referred to or incorporated into the circuit plan, including a list of individuals, groups, and public and private entities that participated in the development of the plan.
2. The diversity of community entities participating in the development of the circuit juvenile justice plan.
3. The number of community partners who will be actively involved in the operation of the grant program.
4. The number of students or youths to be served by the grant and the criteria by which they will be selected.
5. The criteria by which the grant program will be evaluated and, if deemed successful, the feasibility of implementation in other communities.
(2) GRANT APPLICATION PROCEDURES.
(a) Each entity wishing to apply for an annual community juvenile justice partnership grant, which may be renewed for a maximum of 2 additional years for the same provision of services, shall submit a grant proposal for funding or continued funding to the department. The department shall establish the grant application procedures. In order to be considered for funding, the grant proposal shall include the following assurances and information:
1. A letter from the chair of the juvenile justice circuit board confirming that the grant application has been reviewed and found to support one or more purposes or goals of the juvenile justice plan as developed by the board.
2. A rationale and description of the program and the services to be provided, including goals and objectives.
3. A method for identification of the juveniles most likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system who will be the focus of the program.
4. Provisions for the participation of parents and guardians in the program.
5. Coordination with other community-based and social service prevention efforts, including, but not limited to, drug and alcohol abuse prevention and dropout prevention programs, that serve the target population or neighborhood.
6. An evaluation component to measure the effectiveness of the program in accordance with s. 985.632.
7. A program budget, including the amount and sources of local cash and in-kind resources committed to the budget. The proposal must establish to the satisfaction of the department that the entity will make a cash or in-kind contribution to the program of a value that is at least equal to 20 percent of the amount of the grant.
8. The necessary program staff.
(b) The department shall consider the recommendations of the juvenile justice circuit advisory board as to the priority that should be given to proposals submitted by entities within a circuit in awarding such grants.
(c) The department shall make available, to anyone wishing to apply for such a grant, information on all of the criteria to be used in the selection of the proposals for funding pursuant to the provisions of this subsection.
(d) The department shall review all program proposals submitted. Entities submitting proposals shall be notified of approval not later than June 30 of each year.
(e) Each entity that is awarded a grant as provided for in this section shall submit an annual evaluation report to the department, the circuit juvenile justice manager, and the juvenile justice circuit advisory board, by a date subsequent to the end of the contract period established by the department, documenting the extent to which the program objectives have been met, the effect of the program on the juvenile arrest rate, and any other information required by the department. The department shall coordinate and incorporate all such annual evaluation reports with s. 985.632. Each entity is also subject to a financial audit and a performance audit.
(f) The department may establish rules and policy provisions necessary to implement this section.
(3) RESTRICTIONS.This section does not prevent a program initiated under a community juvenile justice partnership grant established pursuant to this section from continuing to operate beyond the 3-year maximum funding period if it can find other funding sources. Likewise, this section does not restrict the number of programs an entity may apply for or operate.
History.s. 75, ch. 97-238; s. 32, ch. 98-207; s. 21, ch. 99-284; s. 52, ch. 2000-135; s. 93, ch. 2006-120; s. 6, ch. 2013-118.
Note.Former s. 985.415.
985.682 Siting of facilities; criteria.
(1) When the department or a contracted provider proposes a site for a juvenile justice facility, the department or provider shall request that the local government having jurisdiction over such proposed site determine whether or not the proposed site is appropriate for public use under local government comprehensive plans, local land use ordinances, local zoning ordinances or regulations, and other local ordinances in effect at the time of such request. If no such determination is made within 90 days after the request, it shall be presumed that the proposed site is in compliance with such plans, ordinances, or regulations.
(2) If the local government determines within 90 days after the request that construction of a facility on the proposed site does not comply with any such plan, ordinance, or regulation, the department may request a modification of such plan, ordinance, or regulation without having an ownership interest in such property. For the purposes of this section, modification includes, but is not limited to, a variance, rezoning, special exception, or any other action of the local government having jurisdiction over the proposed site which would authorize siting of a facility.
(3) Upon receipt of a request for modification from the department, the local government may recommend and hold a public hearing on the request for modification in the same manner as for a rezoning as provided under the appropriate special or local law or ordinance, except that such proceeding shall be recorded by tape or by a certified court reporter and made available for transcription at the expense of any interested party.
(4) When the department requests such a modification and it is denied by the local government, the local government or the department shall initiate the dispute resolution process to reconcile differences on the siting of correctional facilities between the department, local governments, and private citizens. The department shall establish, by rule, procedures for dispute resolution. The dispute resolution process shall require the parties to commence meetings to reconcile their differences. If the parties fail to resolve their differences within 30 days after the denial, the parties shall engage in voluntary mediation or similar process. If the parties fail to resolve their differences by mediation within 60 days after the denial, or if no action is taken on the department’s request within 90 days after the request, the department must appeal the decision of the local government on the requested modification of local plans, ordinances, or regulations to the Governor and Cabinet. Any dispute resolution process initiated under this section must conform to the time limitations set forth herein. However, upon agreement of all parties, the time limits may be extended, but in no event may the dispute resolution process extend over 180 days.
(5) The Governor and Cabinet shall consider the following when determining whether to grant the appeal from the decision of the local government on the requested modification:
(a) The record of the proceedings before the local government.
(b) Reports and studies by any other agency relating to matters within the jurisdiction of such agency which may be potentially affected by the proposed site.
(c) Existing studies, reports and information maintained by the department as the Governor and Cabinet may request addressing the feasibility and availability of alternative sites in the general area, and the need for a facility in the area based on the average number of petitions, commitments, and transfers into the criminal court from the county to state facilities for the most recent 3 calendar years.
(6) The Governor and Cabinet, upon determining that the local government has recommended no feasible alternative site and that the interests of the state in providing facilities outweigh the concerns of the local government, shall authorize construction and operation of a facility on the proposed site notwithstanding any local plan, ordinance, or regulation.
(7) The Governor and Cabinet may adopt rules of procedure to govern these proceedings in accordance with the provisions of s. 120.54.
(8) Actions taken by the department or the Governor and Cabinet pursuant to this section shall not be subject to the provisions of ss. 120.56, 120.569, and 120.57. The decision by the Governor and Cabinet shall be subject to judicial review pursuant to s. 120.68 in the District Court of Appeal, First District.
(9) All other departments and agencies of the state shall cooperate fully with the department to accomplish the siting of facilities for juvenile offenders.
(10) It is the intent of the Legislature to expedite the siting of, acquisition of land for, and construction by the Department of Juvenile Justice of state juvenile justice facilities operated by the department or a private vendor under contract with the department. Other agencies shall cooperate with the department and expeditiously fulfill their responsibilities to avoid unnecessary delay in the siting of, acquisition of land for, and construction of state juvenile justice facilities. This section and all other laws of the state shall be construed to accomplish this intent. This section shall take precedence over any other law to the contrary.
(11)(a) The department shall acquire land and erect juvenile justice facilities necessary to accommodate children committed to the custody, care, or supervision of the department, and shall make additional alterations to facilities to accommodate any increase in the number of children. The department shall establish adequate accommodations for staff of the department who are required to reside continuously within the facilities.
(b) Notwithstanding s. 255.25(1), the department may enter into lease-purchase agreements to provide juvenile justice facilities for housing committed youths, contingent upon available funds. The facilities provided through such agreements must meet the program plan and specifications of the department. The department may enter into such lease agreements with private corporations and other governmental entities. However, notwithstanding s. 255.25(3)(a), a lease agreement may not be entered into except upon advertisement for the receipt of competitive bids and award to the lowest and best bidder except if contracting with other governmental entities.
(c) A lease-purchase agreement that is for a term extending beyond the end of a fiscal year is subject to the provisions of s. 216.311.
(12)(a) Notwithstanding s. 253.025 or s. 287.057, when the department finds it necessary for timely site acquisition, it may contract, without using the competitive selection procedure, with an appraiser whose name is on the list of approved appraisers maintained by the Division of State Lands of the Department of Environmental Protection under s. 253.025(8). When the department directly contracts for appraisal services, it must contract with an approved appraiser who is not employed by the same appraisal firm for review services.
(b) Notwithstanding s. 253.025(8), the department may negotiate and enter into an option contract before an appraisal is obtained. The option contract must state that the final purchase price may not exceed the maximum value allowed by law. The consideration for such an option contract may not exceed 10 percent of the estimate obtained by the department or 10 percent of the value of the parcel, whichever amount is greater.
(c) This subsection applies only to a purchase or acquisition of land for juvenile justice facilities. This subsection does not modify the authority of the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund or the Division of State Lands of the Department of Environmental Protection to approve any contract for purchase of state lands as provided by law or to require policies and procedures to obtain clear legal title to parcels purchased for state purposes.
(13) The department may sell, to the best possible advantage, any detached parcels of land belonging to the bodies of land purchased for the state juvenile justice facilities. The department may purchase any parcel of land contiguous with the lands purchased for state juvenile justice facilities.
(14) The department may begin preliminary site preparation and obtain the appropriate permits for the construction of a juvenile justice facility after approval by the Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund of the lease purchase agreement or option contract if, in the department’s discretion, commencing construction is in the best interests of the state.
(15) Insofar as the provisions of this section are inconsistent with the provisions of any other law, general, special, or local, the provisions of this section are controlling. Additionally, the criteria and procedures set forth in this section supersede and are in lieu of any review and approval required by s. 380.06.
History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 20, ch. 93-230; s. 56, ch. 94-209; s. 13, ch. 96-398; s. 5, ch. 96-410; s. 70, ch. 97-238; s. 27, ch. 98-207; s. 140, ch. 99-3; s. 94, ch. 2006-120; s. 57, ch. 2012-116; s. 11, ch. 2013-152; s. 39, ch. 2014-162; s. 30, ch. 2015-30; s. 47, ch. 2016-233.
Note.Former s. 39.074; s. 985.41.
985.686 Shared county and state responsibility for juvenile detention.
(1) It is the policy of this state that the state and the counties have a joint obligation, as provided in this section, to contribute to the financial support of the detention care provided for juveniles.
(2) As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Detention care” means secure detention and respite beds for juveniles charged with a domestic violence crime.
(b) “Fiscally constrained county” means a county within a rural area of opportunity as designated by the Governor pursuant to s. 288.0656 or each county for which the value of a mill will raise no more than $5 million in revenue, based on the certified school taxable value certified pursuant to s. 1011.62(4)(a)1.a., from the previous July 1.
(3) Each county shall pay the costs of providing detention care, exclusive of the costs of any preadjudicatory nonmedical educational or therapeutic services and $2.5 million provided for additional medical and mental health care at the detention centers, for juveniles for the period of time prior to final court disposition. The department shall develop an accounts payable system to allocate costs that are payable by the counties.
(4) Notwithstanding subsection (3), the state shall pay all costs of detention care for juveniles for which a fiscally constrained county would otherwise be billed.
(a) By October 1, 2004, the department shall develop a methodology for determining the amount of each fiscally constrained county’s costs of detention care for juveniles, for the period of time prior to final court disposition, which must be paid by the state. At a minimum, this methodology must consider the difference between the amount appropriated to the department for offsetting the costs associated with the assignment of juvenile pretrial detention expenses to the fiscally constrained county and the total estimated costs to the fiscally constrained county, for the fiscal year, of detention care for juveniles for the period of time prior to final court disposition.
(b) Subject to legislative appropriation and based on the methodology developed under paragraph (a), the department shall provide funding to offset the costs to fiscally constrained counties of detention care for juveniles for the period of time prior to final court disposition. If county matching funds are required by the department to eliminate the difference calculated under paragraph (a) or the difference between the actual costs of the fiscally constrained counties and the amount appropriated in small county grants for use in mitigating such costs, that match amount must be allocated proportionately among all fiscally constrained counties.
(5) Each county shall incorporate into its annual county budget sufficient funds to pay its costs of detention care for juveniles who reside in that county for the period of time prior to final court disposition. This amount shall be based upon the prior use of secure detention for juveniles who are residents of that county, as calculated by the department. Each county shall pay the estimated costs at the beginning of each month. Any difference between the estimated costs and actual costs shall be reconciled at the end of the state fiscal year.
(6) Each county shall pay to the department for deposit into the Shared County/State Juvenile Detention Trust Fund its share of the county’s total costs for juvenile detention, based upon calculations published by the department with input from the counties.
(7) The Department of Juvenile Justice shall determine each quarter whether the counties of this state are remitting to the department their share of the costs of detention as required by this section.
(8) The Department of Revenue and the counties shall provide technical assistance as necessary to the Department of Juvenile Justice in order to develop the most cost-effective means of collection.
(9) Funds received from counties pursuant to this section are not subject to the service charges provided in s. 215.20.
(10) This section does not apply to any county that provides detention care for preadjudicated juveniles or that contracts with another county to provide detention care for preadjudicated juveniles.
(11) The department may adopt rules to administer this section.
History.s. 1, ch. 2004-263; ss. 1, 2, ch. 2004-473; s. 3, ch. 2006-62; s. 95, ch. 2006-120; s. 4, ch. 2006-229; s. 11, ch. 2007-73; s. 3, ch. 2008-8; s. 54, ch. 2010-117; s. 1, ch. 2011-53; s. 1, ch. 2012-137; s. 42, ch. 2014-218.
Note.Former s. 985.2155.
985.6865 Juvenile detention.
(1) The Legislature finds that various counties and the Department of Juvenile Justice have engaged in a multitude of legal proceedings regarding detention cost sharing for juveniles. Such litigation has largely focused on how the Department of Juvenile Justice calculates the detention costs that the counties are responsible for paying, leading to the overbilling of counties for a period of years. Additionally, litigation pending in 2016 is a financial burden on the taxpayers of this state.
(2) It is the intent of the Legislature that all counties that are not fiscally constrained counties and that have pending administrative or judicial claims or challenges file a notice of voluntary dismissal with prejudice to dismiss all actions pending on or before February 1, 2016, against the state or any state agency related to juvenile detention cost sharing. Furthermore, all counties that are not fiscally constrained shall execute a release and waiver of any existing or future claims and actions arising from detention cost share prior to the 2016-2017 fiscal year. The department may not seek reimbursement from counties complying with this subsection for any underpayment for any cost-sharing requirements before the 2016-2017 fiscal year.
(3) As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Detention care” means secure detention and respite beds for juveniles charged with a domestic violence crime.
(b) “Fiscally constrained county” means a county within a rural area of opportunity as designated by the Governor pursuant to s. 288.0656 or each county for which the value of a mill will raise no more than $5 million in revenue, based on the certified school taxable value certified pursuant to s. 1011.62(4)(a)1.a., from the previous July 1.
(c) “Total shared detention costs” means the amount of funds expended by the department for the costs of detention care for the prior fiscal year. This amount includes the most recent actual certify forward amounts minus any funds it expends on detention care for juveniles residing in fiscally constrained counties or out of state.
(4)(a) Notwithstanding s. 985.686 and for the 2016-2017 state fiscal year, each county that is not a fiscally constrained county that has taken the action fulfilling the intent of this legislation as described in subsection (2) shall pay to the department its annual percentage share of $42.5 million. By June 1, 2016, the department shall calculate and provide to each county that is not a fiscally constrained county its annual percentage share by dividing the total number of detention days for juveniles residing in that county for the most recently completed 12-month period by the total number of detention days for juveniles in all counties that are not fiscally constrained counties during the same period. Beginning July 1, 2016, each such county shall pay to the department its annual percentage share of $42.5 million, which shall be paid in 12 equal payments due on the first day of each month. The state shall pay the remaining actual costs of detention care. This paragraph expires June 30, 2017.
(b) Notwithstanding s. 985.686, for the 2017-2018 fiscal year, and each fiscal year thereafter, each county that is not a fiscally constrained county and that has taken the action fulfilling the intent of this section as described in subsection (2) shall pay its annual percentage share of 50 percent of the total shared detention costs. By July 15, 2017, and each year thereafter, the department shall calculate and provide to each county that is not a fiscally constrained county its annual percentage share by dividing the total number of detention days for juveniles residing in the county for the most recently completed 12-month period by the total number of detention days for juveniles in all counties that are not fiscally constrained counties during the same period. The annual percentage share of each county that is not a fiscally constrained county must be multiplied by 50 percent of the total shared detention costs to determine that county’s share of detention costs. Beginning August 1, each such county shall pay to the department its share of detention costs, which shall be paid in 12 equal payments due on the first day of each month. The state shall pay the remaining actual costs of detention care.
(5) The state shall pay all costs of detention care for juveniles residing in a fiscally constrained county and for juveniles residing out of state. The state shall pay all costs of detention care for juveniles housed in state detention centers from counties that provide their own detention care for juveniles.
(6) Each county that is not a fiscally constrained county and that has taken the action fulfilling the intent of this section as described in subsection (2) shall incorporate into its annual county budget sufficient funds to pay its annual percentage share of the total shared detention costs required by subsection (4).
(7) Funds paid by the counties to the department pursuant to this section must be deposited into the Shared County/State Juvenile Detention Trust Fund.
(8) The department shall determine each quarter whether the counties are remitting funds as required by this section.
(9) Funds received from counties pursuant to this section are not subject to the service charges provided in s. 215.20.
(10) The department may adopt rules to administer this section.
History.s. 1, ch. 2016-152.
985.688 Administering county and municipal delinquency programs and facilities.
(1) A county or municipal government may plan, develop, and coordinate services and programs for the control and rehabilitative treatment of delinquent behavior.
(2) A county or municipal government may develop or contract for innovative programs that provide rehabilitative treatment with particular emphasis on reintegration and conditional release for all children in the program, including halfway houses and community-based substance abuse treatment services, mental health treatment services, residential and nonresidential programs, and environmental programs.
(3) A county or municipal government developing or contracting for a local program pursuant to this section is responsible for all costs associated with the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the program.
(4) In accordance with rules adopted by the department, a county or municipal government may transfer a child, when necessary to appropriately administer the child’s commitment, from one facility or program operated, contracted, or subcontracted by the county or municipal government to another such facility or program.
(5) In view of the importance of the basic value of work, responsibility, and self-reliance to a child’s rehabilitation within his or her community, a county or municipal government may provide work programs for delinquent children and may pay a child a reasonable sum of money for work performed while employed in any such work program. The work involved in such work programs must be designed to benefit the county or municipal government, the local community, or the state.
(6) A county or municipal government developing or contracting for a local program pursuant to this section is responsible for following state law and department rules relating to children’s delinquency services and for the coordination of its efforts with those of the Federal Government, state agencies, private agencies, and child advocacy groups providing such services.
(7) The department is required to conduct quarterly inspections and evaluations of each county or municipal government juvenile delinquency program to determine whether the program complies with department rules for continued operation of the program. The department shall charge, and the county or municipal government shall pay, a monitoring fee equal to 0.5 percent of the direct operating costs of the program. The operation of a program which fails to pass the department’s quarterly inspection and evaluation, if the deficiency causing the failure is material, must be terminated if such deficiency is not corrected by the next quarterly inspection.
(8) A county or municipal government providing a local program pursuant to this section shall ensure that personnel responsible for the care, supervision, and treatment of children in the program are apprised of the requirements of this section and appropriately trained to comply with department rules.
(9) A county or municipal government may establish and operate a juvenile detention facility in compliance with this section, if such facility is certified by the department.
(a) The department shall evaluate the county or municipal government detention facility to determine whether the facility complies with the department’s rules prescribing the standards and requirements for the operation of a juvenile detention facility. The rules for certification of secure juvenile detention facilities operated by county or municipal governments must be consistent with the rules for certification of secure juvenile detention facilities operated by the department.
(b) The department is required to conduct quarterly inspections and evaluations of each county or municipal government juvenile detention facility to determine whether the facility complies with the department’s rules for continued operation. The department shall charge, and the county or municipal government shall pay, a monitoring fee equal to 0.5 percent of the direct operating costs of the program. The operation of a facility which fails to pass the department’s quarterly inspection and evaluation, if the deficiency causing the failure is material, must be terminated if such deficiency is not corrected by the next quarterly inspection.
(c) A county or municipal government operating a local juvenile detention facility pursuant to this section is responsible for all costs associated with the establishment, operation, and maintenance of the facility.
(d) Only children who reside within the jurisdictional boundaries of the county or municipal government operating the juvenile detention facility and children who are detained for committing an offense within the jurisdictional boundaries of the county or municipal government operating the facility may be held in the facility.
(e) A child may be placed in a county or municipal government juvenile detention facility only when:
1. The department’s regional juvenile detention facility is filled to capacity;
2. The safety of the child dictates; or
3. Otherwise ordered by a court.
(f) A child who is placed in a county or municipal government juvenile detention facility must meet the detention criteria as established in this chapter.
(10)(a) The department may institute injunctive proceedings in a court of competent jurisdiction against a county or municipality to:
1. Enforce the provisions of this chapter or a minimum standard, rule, regulation, or order issued or entered pursuant thereto; or
2. Terminate the operation of a facility operated pursuant to this section.
(b) The department may institute proceedings against a county or municipality to terminate the operation of a facility when any of the following conditions exist:
1. The facility fails to take preventive or corrective measures in accordance with any order of the department.
2. The facility fails to abide by any final order of the department once it has become effective and binding.
3. The facility commits any violation of this section constituting an emergency requiring immediate action as provided in this chapter.
4. The facility has willfully and knowingly refused to comply with the screening requirement for personnel under s. 985.644(1) or has refused to dismiss personnel found to be in noncompliance with the requirements for good moral character.
(c) Injunctive relief may include temporary and permanent injunctions.
(11)(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a county is in compliance with this section if:
1. The county provides the full cost for detention for juveniles;
2. The county authorizes the county sheriff, any other county jail operator, or a contracted provider located inside or outside the county to provide detention care for juveniles;
3. The county sheriff or other county jail operator is accredited by the Florida Corrections Accreditation Commission or American Correctional Association; and
4. The facility is inspected annually and meets the Florida Model Jail Standards.
(b) A county or county sheriff may form regional detention facilities through an interlocal agreement in order to meet the requirements of this section.
(c) Each county sheriff or other county jail operator must follow the federal regulations that require sight and sound separation of juvenile inmates from adult inmates.
(d) A county or county sheriff that complies with this subsection is not subject to any additional training, procedures, or inspections required by this chapter.
History.s. 27, ch. 92-287; s. 216, ch. 95-147; s. 71, ch. 97-238; s. 49, ch. 2000-135; s. 96, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2011-53; s. 8, ch. 2012-56; s. 3, ch. 2016-152.
Note.Former s. 39.0215; s. 985.411.
985.69 Repair and maintenance funding for juvenile justice purposes.Funds from juvenile justice appropriations may be used as funding for juvenile justice purposes that include, but are not limited to, remodeling or renovation of existing facilities, purchase of equipment and furniture, site development, and other necessary and reasonable costs associated with the repair and maintenance of facilities or programs.
History.s. 16, ch. 96-398; ss. 24, 79, ch. 2002-402; s. 34, ch. 2003-399; s. 24, ch. 2005-3; s. 97, ch. 2006-120; s. 40, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.4075.
985.692 Juvenile Welfare Trust Fund.
(1) There is created in the Department of Juvenile Justice the Juvenile Welfare Trust Fund. The fund shall be credited with proceeds from the operation of canteens, vending machines, hobby shops, activity centers, farming projects, donations to a program, contracted telephone commissions, and other such facilities or programs designated as accruing to the Juvenile Welfare Trust Fund. The purpose of the trust fund shall be for the benefit and welfare of juveniles committed to or detained in facilities operated by the department or by private vendors contracting with the department.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of s. 216.301 and pursuant to s. 216.351, any balance in the trust fund at the end of any fiscal year shall remain in the trust fund at the end of the year and shall be available for carrying out the purposes of the trust fund.
History.s. 1, ch. 99-327; s. 2, ch. 2002-120; s. 97, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 985.4041.
PART XII
MISCELLANEOUS OFFENSES
985.701 Sexual misconduct prohibited; reporting required; penalties.
985.702 Willful and malicious neglect of a juvenile offender prohibited; reporting required; penalties.
985.711 Introduction, removal, or possession of certain articles unlawful; penalty.
985.721 Escapes from secure detention or residential commitment facility.
985.731 Sheltering unmarried minors; aiding unmarried minor runaways; violations.
985.701 Sexual misconduct prohibited; reporting required; penalties.
(1)(a)1. As used in this section, the term:
a. “Sexual misconduct” means fondling the genital area, groin, inner thighs, buttocks, or breasts of a person; the oral, anal, or vaginal penetration by or union with the sexual organ of another; or the anal or vaginal penetration of another by any other object. The term does not include an act done for a bona fide medical purpose or an internal search conducted in the lawful performance of duty by an employee of the department or an employee of a provider under contract with the department.
b. “Employee” includes paid staff members, volunteers, and interns who work in a department program or a program operated by a provider under a contract.
c. “Juvenile offender” means any person of any age who is detained or supervised by, or committed to the custody of, the department.
2. An employee who engages in sexual misconduct with a juvenile offender commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. An employee may be found guilty of violating this subsection without having committed the crime of sexual battery.
3. The consent of the juvenile offender to any act of sexual misconduct is not a defense to prosecution under this subsection.
4. This subsection does not apply to an employee of the department, or an employee of a provider under contract with the department, who:
a. Is legally married to a juvenile offender who is detained or supervised by, or committed to the custody of, the department.
b. Has no reason to believe that the person with whom the employee engaged in sexual misconduct is a juvenile offender.
(b) Notwithstanding prosecution, any violation of this subsection, as determined by the Public Employees Relations Commission, constitutes sufficient cause under s. 110.227 for dismissal from employment with the department, and such person may not again be employed in any capacity in connection with the juvenile justice system.
(2) An employee of the department, or an employee of a provider under contract with the department, who witnesses sexual misconduct committed against a juvenile offender, or who has reasonable cause to suspect that sexual misconduct has been committed against a juvenile offender, shall immediately report the incident to the department’s incident hotline, and prepare, date, and sign an independent report that specifically describes the nature of the sexual misconduct, the location and time of the incident, and the persons involved. The employee shall deliver the report to the supervisor or program director, who is responsible for providing copies to the department’s inspector general and the circuit juvenile justice manager. The inspector general shall immediately conduct an appropriate administrative investigation, and, if there is probable cause to believe that a violation of subsection (1) has occurred, the inspector general shall notify the state attorney in the circuit in which the incident occurred.
(3)(a) Any person who is required to prepare a report under this section and who knowingly or willfully fails to do so, or who knowingly or willfully prevents another person from doing so, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(b) Any person who knowingly or willfully submits inaccurate, incomplete, or untruthful information with respect to a report required under this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(c) Any person who knowingly or willfully coerces or threatens any other person with the intent to alter testimony or a written report regarding an incident of sexual misconduct commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.s. 2, ch. 97-215; s. 47, ch. 2000-135; s. 98, ch. 2006-120; s. 42, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 985.4045.
985.702 Willful and malicious neglect of a juvenile offender prohibited; reporting required; penalties.
(1) As used in this section, the term:
(a) “Employee” means a paid staff member, volunteer, or intern who works in a department program or a program operated by a provider under a contract with the department.
(b) “Juvenile offender” means any person of any age who is detained by, or committed to the custody of, the department.
(c) “Neglect” means:
1. An employee’s failure or omission to provide a juvenile offender with the proper level of care, supervision, and services necessary to maintain the juvenile offender’s physical and mental health, including, but not limited to, adequate food, nutrition, clothing, shelter, supervision, medicine, and medical services; or
2. An employee’s failure to make a reasonable effort to protect a juvenile offender from abuse, neglect, or exploitation by another person.
(2)(a) An employee who willfully and maliciously neglects a juvenile offender without causing great bodily harm, permanent disability, or permanent disfigurement commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
(b) An employee who willfully and maliciously neglects a juvenile offender and in so doing causes great bodily harm, permanent disability, or permanent disfigurement commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
(c) Notwithstanding prosecution, any violation of paragraph (a) or paragraph (b), as determined by the Public Employees Relations Commission, constitutes sufficient cause under s. 110.227 for dismissal from employment with the department, and such person may not again be employed in any capacity in the juvenile justice system.
(3) An employee who witnesses the infliction of neglect upon a juvenile offender shall immediately report the incident to the department’s incident hotline and prepare, date, and sign an independent report that specifically describes the nature of the incident, the location and time of the incident, and the persons involved in the incident. The employee shall deliver the report to the employee’s supervisor or program director, who must provide copies to the department’s inspector general and the circuit juvenile justice manager. The inspector general shall immediately conduct an appropriate administrative investigation, and, if there is probable cause to believe that a violation of subsection (2) has occurred, the inspector general shall notify the state attorney in the circuit in which the incident occurred.
(4)(a) A person who is required to prepare a report under this section who knowingly or willfully fails to do so, or who knowingly or willfully prevents another person from doing so, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(b) A person who knowingly or willfully submits inaccurate, incomplete, or untruthful information with respect to a report required under this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(c) A person who knowingly or willfully coerces or threatens any other person with the intent to alter testimony or a written report regarding an incident of neglect upon a juvenile offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.s. 43, ch. 2014-162.
985.711 Introduction, removal, or possession of certain articles unlawful; penalty.
(1)(a) Except as authorized through program policy or operating procedure or as authorized by the facility superintendent, program director, or manager, a person may not introduce into or upon the grounds of a juvenile detention facility or commitment program, or take or send, or attempt to take or send, from a juvenile detention facility or commitment program, any of the following articles, which are declared to be contraband under this section:
1. Any unauthorized article of food or clothing.
2. Any intoxicating beverage or any beverage that causes or may cause an intoxicating effect.
3. Any controlled substance, as defined in s. 893.02(4), or any prescription or nonprescription drug that has a hypnotic, stimulating, or depressing effect.
4. Any firearm or weapon of any kind or any explosive substance.
(b) A person may not transmit contraband to, cause contraband to be transmitted to or received by, attempt to transmit contraband to, or attempt to cause contraband to be transmitted to or received by, a juvenile offender into or upon the grounds of a juvenile detention facility or commitment program, except as authorized through program policy or operating procedures or as authorized by the facility superintendent, program director, or manager.
(c) A juvenile offender or any person, while upon the grounds of a juvenile detention facility or commitment program, may not be in actual or constructive possession of any article or thing declared to be contraband under this section, except as authorized through program policy or operating procedures or as authorized by the facility superintendent, program director, or manager.
(2) Any person who violates this section as it pertains to an article of contraband described in subparagraph (1)(a)1. commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. In all other cases, a person who violates this section commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.s. 3, ch. 97-215; s. 98, ch. 2006-120; s. 33, ch. 2016-145.
Note.Former s. 985.4046.
985.721 Escapes from secure detention or residential commitment facility.An escape from:
(1) Any secure detention facility maintained for the temporary detention of children, pending adjudication, disposition, or placement;
(2) Any residential commitment facility described in s. 985.03(44), maintained for the custody, treatment, punishment, or rehabilitation of children found to have committed delinquent acts or violations of law; or
(3) Lawful transportation to or from any such secure detention facility or residential commitment facility,

constitutes escape within the intent and meaning of s. 944.40 and is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

History.s. 5, ch. 90-208; s. 13, ch. 92-287; s. 52, ch. 94-209; s. 12, ch. 95-152; s. 3, ch. 96-398; s. 113, ch. 97-238; s. 4, ch. 98-207; s. 59, ch. 98-280; s. 163, ch. 98-403; s. 136, ch. 99-3; s. 30, ch. 99-284; s. 41, ch. 2000-135; s. 41, ch. 2001-64; s. 18, ch. 2005-263; s. 99, ch. 2006-120; s. 3, ch. 2010-123; s. 9, ch. 2012-56; s. 44, ch. 2014-162.
Note.Former s. 39.061; s. 944.401; s. 985.3141.
985.731 Sheltering unmarried minors; aiding unmarried minor runaways; violations.
(1)(a) A person who is not an authorized agent of the department or the Department of Children and Families may not knowingly shelter an unmarried minor for more than 24 hours without the consent of the minor’s parent or guardian or without notifying a law enforcement officer of the minor’s name and the fact that the minor is being provided shelter.
(b) A person may not knowingly provide aid to an unmarried minor who has run away from home without first contacting the minor’s parent or guardian or notifying a law enforcement officer. The aid prohibited under this paragraph includes assisting the minor in obtaining shelter, such as hotel lodgings.
(2) A person who violates this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.s. 14, ch. 97-281; s. 100, ch. 2006-120; s. 360, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 985.2065.
PART XIII
INTERSTATE COMPACT ON JUVENILES
985.801 Interstate Compact on Juveniles; implementing legislation; legislative findings and policy.
985.802 Execution of interstate compact for juveniles.
985.8025 State Council for Interstate Juvenile Offender Supervision.
985.801 Interstate Compact on Juveniles; implementing legislation; legislative findings and policy.
(1) It is hereby found and declared:
(a) That juveniles who are not under proper supervision and control, or who have absconded, escaped or run away, are likely to endanger their own health, morals, and welfare, and the health, morals, and welfare of others;
(b) That the cooperation of this state with other states is necessary to provide for the welfare and protection of juveniles and of the people of this state.
(2) It shall therefore be the policy of this state, in adopting the Interstate Compact on Juveniles, to cooperate fully with other states:
(a) In returning juveniles to such other states whenever their return is sought; and
(b) In accepting the return of juveniles whenever a juvenile residing in this state is found or apprehended in another state and in taking all measures to initiate proceedings for the return of such juveniles.
History.s. 1, ch. 57-298; s. 26, ch. 78-414; s. 80, ch. 97-238; s. 101, ch. 2006-120.
Note.Former s. 39.25; s. 39.51; s. 985.501.
985.802 Execution of interstate compact for juveniles.The Governor is authorized and directed to execute a compact on behalf of this state with any other state or states legally joining thereto in the form substantially as follows. This compact does not interfere with this state’s authority to determine policy regarding juvenile offenders and nonoffenders within this state.

THE INTERSTATE COMPACT FOR JUVENILES

ARTICLE I

PURPOSE.—

(1) The compacting states to this Interstate Compact recognize that each state is responsible for the proper supervision or return of juveniles, delinquents, and status offenders who are on probation or parole and who have absconded, escaped, or run away from supervision and control and in so doing have endangered their own safety and the safety of others. The compacting states also recognize that each state is responsible for the safe return of juveniles who have run away from home and in doing so have left their state of residence. The compacting states also recognize that Congress, by enacting the Crime Control Act, 4 U.S.C. s. 112 (1965), has authorized and encouraged compacts for cooperative efforts and mutual assistance in the prevention of crime.

(2) It is the purpose of this compact, through means of joint and cooperative action among the compacting states to: (A) ensure that the adjudicated juveniles and status offenders subject to this compact are provided adequate supervision and services in the receiving state as ordered by the adjudicating judge or parole authority in the sending state; (B) ensure that the public safety interests of the public, including the victims of juvenile offenders, in both the sending and receiving states are adequately protected; (C) return juveniles who have run away, absconded, or escaped from supervision or control or who have been accused of an offense to the state requesting their return; (D) make contracts for the cooperative institutionalization in public facilities in member states for delinquent youth needing special services; (E) provide for the effective tracking and supervision of juveniles; (F) equitably allocate the costs, benefits, and obligations of the compacting states; (G) establish procedures to manage the movement between states of juvenile offenders released to the community under the jurisdiction of courts, juvenile departments, or any other criminal or juvenile justice agency that has jurisdiction over juvenile offenders; (H) ensure immediate notice to jurisdictions where defined offenders are authorized to travel or to relocate across state lines; (I) establish procedures to resolve pending charges (detainers) against juvenile offenders prior to transfer or release to the community under the terms of this compact; (J) establish a system of uniform data collection of information pertaining to juveniles subject to this compact which allows access by authorized juvenile justice and criminal justice officials, and regular reporting of activities under this compact to heads of state executive, judicial, and legislative branches and juvenile and criminal justice administrators; (K) monitor compliance with rules governing interstate movement of juveniles and initiate interventions to address and correct noncompliance; (L) coordinate training and education regarding the regulation of interstate movement of juveniles for officials involved in such activity; and (M) coordinate the implementation and operation of the compact with the Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children, the Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision, and other compacts affecting juveniles, particularly in those cases where concurrent or overlapping supervision issues arise. It is the policy of the compacting states that the activities conducted by the Interstate Commission created in this compact are the formation of public policies and therefore are public business. Furthermore, the compacting states shall cooperate and observe their individual and collective duties and responsibilities for the prompt return and acceptance of juveniles subject to the provisions of the compact. The provisions of the compact shall be reasonably and liberally construed to accomplish the purposes and policies of the compact.

ARTICLE II

DEFINITIONS.—As used in this compact, unless the context clearly requires a different construction:

(1) “Bylaws” means those bylaws established by the Interstate Commission for its governance or for directing or controlling its actions or conduct.

(2) “Compact administrator” means the individual in each compacting state, appointed pursuant to the terms of this compact, who is responsible for the administration and management of the state’s supervision and transfer of juveniles subject to the terms of this compact, the rules adopted by the Interstate Commission, and the policies adopted by the state council under this compact.

(3) “Compacting state” means any state that has enacted the enabling legislation for this compact.

(4) “Commissioner” means the voting representative of each compacting state appointed pursuant to Article III of this compact.

(5) “Court” means any court having jurisdiction over delinquent, neglected, or dependent children.

(6) “Deputy compact administrator” means the individual, if any, in each compacting state appointed to act on behalf of a compact administrator pursuant to the terms of the compact who is responsible for the administration and management of the state’s supervision and transfer of juveniles subject to the terms of this compact, the rules adopted by the Interstate Commission, and the policies adopted by the state council under this compact.

(7) “Interstate Commission” means the Interstate Commission for Juveniles created by Article III of this compact.

(8) “Juvenile” means any person defined as a juvenile in any member state or by the rules of the Interstate Commission, including:

(a) Accused delinquent - a person charged with an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be a criminal offense;

(b) Adjudicated delinquent - a person found to have committed an offense that, if committed by an adult, would be a criminal offense;

(c) Accused status offender - a person charged with an offense that would not be a criminal offense if committed by an adult;

(d) Adjudicated status offender - a person found to have committed an offense that would not be a criminal offense if committed by an adult; and

(e) Nonoffender - a person in need of supervision who has not been accused or adjudicated a status offender or delinquent.

(9) “Noncompacting state” means any state that has not enacted the enabling legislation for this compact.

(10) “Probation or parole” means any kind of supervision or conditional release of juveniles authorized under the laws of the compacting states.

(11) “Rule” means a written statement by the Interstate Commission adopted pursuant to Article VI of this compact which is of general applicability and implements, interprets, or prescribes a policy or provision of the compact, or an organizational, procedural, or practice requirement of the commission; has the force and effect of statutory law in a compacting state; and includes the amendment, repeal, or suspension of an existing rule.

(12) “State” means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia (or its designee), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

ARTICLE III

INTERSTATE COMMISSION FOR JUVENILES.—

(1) The compacting states hereby create the “Interstate Commission for Juveniles.” The Interstate Commission shall be a body corporate and joint agency of the compacting states. The Interstate Commission shall have all the responsibilities, powers, and duties set forth in this compact, and such additional powers as may be conferred upon it by subsequent action of the respective legislatures of the compacting states in accordance with the terms of this compact.

(2) The Interstate Commission shall consist of commissioners appointed by the appropriate appointing authority in each state pursuant to the rules and requirements of each compacting state and in consultation with the State Council for Interstate Juvenile Supervision created hereunder. The commissioner shall be the compact administrator, deputy compact administrator, or designee from that state who shall serve on the Interstate Commission in such capacity under or pursuant to the applicable law of the compacting state.

(3) In addition to the commissioners who are the voting representatives of each state, the Interstate Commission shall include individuals who are not commissioners, but who are members of interested organizations. Such noncommissioner members must include a member of the national organization of governors, legislatures, state chief justices, attorneys general, Interstate Compact for Adult Offender Supervision, Interstate Compact for the Placement of Children, juvenile justice and juvenile corrections officials, and crime victims. All noncommissioner members of the Interstate Commission shall be ex officio, nonvoting members. The Interstate Commission may provide in its bylaws for such additional ex officio, nonvoting members, including members of other national organizations, in such numbers as shall be determined by the Interstate Commission.

(4) Each compacting state represented at any meeting of the Interstate Commission is entitled to one vote. A majority of the compacting states shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, unless a larger quorum is required by the bylaws of the Interstate Commission.

(5) The Interstate Commission shall establish an executive committee, which shall include commission officers, members, and others as determined by the bylaws. The executive committee shall have the power to act on behalf of the Interstate Commission during periods when the Interstate Commission is not in session, with the exception of rulemaking or amendment to the compact. The executive committee shall oversee the day-to-day activities of the administration of the compact, which shall be managed by an executive director and Interstate Commission staff. The executive committee shall administer enforcement and compliance with the provisions of the compact, its bylaws, and rules, and shall perform other duties as directed by the Interstate Commission or set forth in the bylaws.

(6) Each member of the Interstate Commission shall have the right and power to cast a vote to which that compacting state is entitled and to participate in the business and affairs of the Interstate Commission. A member shall vote in person and may not delegate a vote to another compacting state. However, a commissioner, in consultation with the state council, shall appoint another authorized representative, in the absence of the commissioner from that state, to cast a vote on behalf of the compacting state at a specified meeting. The bylaws may provide for members’ participation in meetings by telephone or other means of telecommunication or electronic communication.

(7) The Interstate Commission shall collect standardized data concerning the interstate movement of juveniles as directed through its rules, which shall specify the data to be collected, the means of collection and data exchange, and reporting requirements. Such methods of data collection, exchange, and reporting shall, insofar as is reasonably possible, conform to up-to-date technology and coordinate its information functions with the appropriate repository of records.

ARTICLE IV

POWERS AND DUTIES OF THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION.—The Interstate Commission shall have the following powers and duties:

(1) To provide for dispute resolution among compacting states.

(2) To adopt rules to effect the purposes and obligations as enumerated in this compact, and which shall have the force and effect of statutory law and shall be binding in the compacting states to the extent and in the manner provided in this compact.

(3) To oversee, supervise, and coordinate the interstate movement of juveniles subject to the terms of this compact and any bylaws and rules adopted by the Interstate Commission.

(4) To enforce compliance with the compact provisions, the rules adopted by the Interstate Commission, and the bylaws, using all necessary and proper means, including, but not limited to, the use of judicial process.

(5) To establish and maintain offices that are located within one or more of the compacting states.

(6) To purchase and maintain insurance and bonds.

(7) To borrow, accept, hire, or contract for services of personnel.

(8) To establish and appoint committees and hire staff that it deems necessary for carrying out its functions, including, but not limited to, an executive committee as required in Article III which shall have the power to act on behalf of the Interstate Commission in carrying out its powers and duties hereunder.

(9) To elect or appoint such officers, attorneys, employees, agents, or consultants; to fix their compensation, define their duties, and determine their qualifications; and to establish the Interstate Commission’s personnel policies and programs relating to, inter alia, conflicts of interest, rates of compensation, and qualifications of personnel.

(10) To accept any and all donations and grants of money, equipment, supplies, materials, and services, and to receive, use, and dispose of such donations and grants.

(11) To lease, purchase, accept contributions or donations of, or otherwise to own, hold, improve, or use any property, real, personal, or mixed.

(12) To sell, convey, mortgage, pledge, lease, exchange, abandon, or otherwise dispose of any property, real, personal, or mixed.

(13) To establish a budget and make expenditures and levy dues as provided in Article VIII of this compact.

(14) To sue and to be sued.

(15) To adopt a seal and bylaws governing the management and operation of the Interstate Commission.

(16) To perform such functions as may be necessary or appropriate to achieve the purposes of this compact.

(17) To report annually to the legislatures, governors, judiciary, and state councils of the compacting states concerning the activities of the Interstate Commission during the preceding year. Such reports shall also include any recommendations that may have been adopted by the Interstate Commission.

(18) To coordinate education, training, and public awareness regarding the interstate movement of juveniles for officials involved in such activity.

(19) To establish uniform standards of the reporting, collecting, and exchanging of data.

(20) To maintain its corporate books and records in accordance with the bylaws.

ARTICLE V

ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION.—

Section A. Bylaws.—The Interstate Commission shall, by a majority of the members present and voting, within 12 months after the first Interstate Commission meeting, adopt bylaws to govern its conduct as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of the compact, including, but not limited to:

(1) Establishing the fiscal year of the Interstate Commission;

(2) Establishing an executive committee and such other committees as may be necessary;

(3) Providing for the establishment of committees governing any general or specific delegation of any authority or function of the Interstate Commission;

(4) Providing reasonable procedures for calling and conducting meetings of the Interstate Commission and ensuring reasonable notice of each such meeting;

(5) Establishing the titles and responsibilities of the officers of the Interstate Commission;

(6) Providing a mechanism for concluding the operation of the Interstate Commission and the return of any surplus funds that may exist upon the termination of the compact after the payment or reserving all of its debts and obligations;

(7) Providing start-up rules for initial administration of the compact; and

(8) Establishing standards and procedures for compliance and technical assistance in carrying out the compact.

Section B. Officers and staff.—

(1) The Interstate Commission shall, by a majority of the members, elect annually from among its members a chairperson and vice chairperson, each of whom shall have such authority and duties as may be specified in the bylaws. The chairperson or, in the chairperson’s absence or disability, the vice chairperson shall preside at all meetings of the Interstate Commission. The officers so elected shall serve without compensation or remuneration from the Interstate Commission; provided that, subject to the availability of budgeted funds, the officers shall be reimbursed for any ordinary and necessary costs and expenses incurred by them in the performance of their duties and responsibilities as officers of the Interstate Commission.

(2) The Interstate Commission shall, through its executive committee, appoint or retain an executive director for such period, upon such terms and conditions, and for such compensation as the Interstate Commission deems appropriate. The executive director shall serve as secretary to the Interstate Commission, but may not be a member, and shall hire and supervise such other staff as may be authorized by the Interstate Commission.

Section C. Qualified immunity, defense, and indemnification.—

(1) The Interstate Commission’s executive director and employees shall be immune from suit and liability, either personally or in their official capacity, for any claim for damage to or loss of property or personal injury or other civil liability caused or arising out of or relating to any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred, or that such person had a reasonable basis for believing occurred, within the scope of commission employment, duties, or responsibilities; provided that any such person is not protected from suit or liability for any damage, loss, injury, or liability caused by the intentional or willful and wanton misconduct of any such person.

(2) The liability of any commissioner, or the employee or agent of a commissioner, acting within the scope of such person’s employment or duties for acts, errors, or omissions occurring within such person’s state may not exceed the limits of liability set forth under the constitution and laws of that state for state officials, employees, and agents. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to protect any such person from suit or liability for any damage, loss, injury, or liability caused by the intentional or willful and wanton misconduct of any such person.

(3) The Interstate Commission shall defend the executive director or the employees or representatives of the Interstate Commission and, subject to the approval of the Attorney General of the state represented by any commissioner of a compacting state, shall defend such commissioner or the commissioner’s representatives or employees in any civil action seeking to impose liability arising out of any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred within the scope of Interstate Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, or that the defendant had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Interstate Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities; provided that the actual or alleged act, error, or omission did not result from intentional or willful and wanton misconduct on the part of such person.

(4) The Interstate Commission shall indemnify and hold the commissioner of a compacting state or the commissioner’s representatives or employees, or the Interstate Commission’s representatives or employees, harmless in the amount of any settlement or judgment obtained against such persons arising out of any actual or alleged act, error, or omission that occurred within the scope of Interstate Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities, or that such persons had a reasonable basis for believing occurred within the scope of Interstate Commission employment, duties, or responsibilities; provided that the actual or alleged act, error, or omission did not result from intentional or willful and wanton misconduct on the part of such persons.

ARTICLE VI

RULEMAKING FUNCTIONS OF THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION.—

(1) The Interstate Commission shall adopt and publish rules in order to effectively and efficiently achieve the purposes of the compact.

(2) Rulemaking shall occur pursuant to the criteria set forth in this article and the bylaws and rules adopted pursuant thereto. Such rulemaking shall substantially conform to the principles of the “Model State Administrative Procedures Act,” 1981 Act, Uniform Laws Annotated, Vol. 15, p. 1 (2000), or such other administrative procedures act as the Interstate Commission deems appropriate consistent with due process requirements under the United States Constitution as now or hereafter interpreted by the United States Supreme Court. All rules and amendments shall become binding as of the date specified, as published with the final version of the rule as approved by the Interstate Commission.

(3) When adopting a rule, the Interstate Commission shall, at a minimum:

(a) Publish the proposed rule’s entire text stating the reason for that proposed rule;

(b) Allow and invite any and all persons to submit written data, facts, opinions, and arguments, which information shall be added to the record and made publicly available;

(c) Provide an opportunity for an informal hearing if petitioned by 10 or more persons; and

(d) Adopt a final rule and its effective date, if appropriate, based on input from state or local officials or interested parties.

(4) Allow, not later than 60 days after a rule is adopted, any interested person to file a petition in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or in the Federal District Court where the Interstate Commission’s principal office is located, for judicial review of such rule. If the court finds that the Interstate Commission’s actions are not supported by the substantial evidence in the rulemaking record, the court shall hold the rule unlawful and set it aside. For purposes of this subsection, evidence is substantial if it would be considered substantial evidence under the Model State Administrative Procedures Act.

(5) If a majority of the legislatures of the compacting states rejects a rule, those states may, by enactment of a statute or resolution in the same manner used to adopt the compact, cause that such rule shall have no further force and effect in any compacting state.

(6) The existing rules governing the operation of the Interstate Compact on Juveniles superseded by this act shall be null and void 12 months after the first meeting of the Interstate Commission created hereunder.

(7) Upon determination by the Interstate Commission that a state of emergency exists, it may adopt an emergency rule that shall become effective immediately upon adoption; provided that the usual rulemaking procedures provided hereunder shall be retroactively applied to said rule as soon as reasonably possible, but no later than 90 days after the effective date of the emergency rule.

ARTICLE VII

OVERSIGHT, ENFORCEMENT, AND DISPUTE RESOLUTION BY THE INTERSTATE COMMISSION.—

Section A. Oversight.—

(1) The Interstate Commission shall oversee the administration and operations of the interstate movement of juveniles subject to this compact in the compacting states and shall monitor such activities being administered in noncompacting states which may significantly affect compacting states.

(2) The courts and executive agencies in each compacting state shall enforce this compact and shall take all actions necessary and appropriate to effectuate the compact’s purposes and intent. The provisions of this compact and the rules adopted hereunder shall be received by all the judges, public officers, commissions, and departments of the state government as evidence of the authorized statute and administrative rules. All courts shall take judicial notice of the compact and the rules. In any judicial or administrative proceeding in a compacting state pertaining to the subject matter of this compact which may affect the powers, responsibilities, or actions of the Interstate Commission, the commission shall be entitled to receive all service of process in any such proceeding and shall have standing to intervene in the proceeding for all purposes.

Section B. Dispute resolution.—

(1) The compacting states shall report to the Interstate Commission on all issues and activities necessary for the administration of the compact as well as issues and activities pertaining to compliance with the provisions of the compact and its bylaws and rules.

(2) The Interstate Commission shall attempt, upon the request of a compacting state, to resolve any disputes or other issues that are subject to the compact and that may arise among compacting states and between compacting and noncompacting states. The commission shall adopt a rule providing for both mediation and binding dispute resolution for disputes among the compacting states.

(3) The Interstate Commission, in the reasonable exercise of its discretion, shall enforce the provisions and rules of this compact using any or all means set forth in Article XI of this compact.

ARTICLE VIII

FINANCE.—

(1) The Interstate Commission shall pay or provide for the payment of the reasonable expenses of its establishment, organization, and ongoing activities.

(2) The Interstate Commission shall levy on and collect an annual assessment from each compacting state to cover the cost of the internal operations and activities of the Interstate Commission and its staff which must be in a total amount sufficient to cover the Interstate Commission’s annual budget as approved each year. The aggregate annual assessment amount shall be allocated based upon a formula to be determined by the Interstate Commission, taking into consideration the population of each compacting state and the volume of interstate movement of juveniles in each compacting state, and the Interstate Commission shall adopt a rule that is binding upon all compacting states governing the assessment.

(3) The Interstate Commission shall not incur any obligations of any kind prior to securing the funds adequate to meet the same, nor shall the Interstate Commission pledge the credit of any of the compacting states, except by and with the authority of the compacting state.

(4) The Interstate Commission shall keep accurate accounts of all receipts and disbursements. The receipts and disbursements of the Interstate Commission shall be subject to the audit and accounting procedures established under its bylaws. However, all receipts and disbursements of funds handled by the Interstate Commission shall be audited yearly by a certified or licensed public accountant, and the report of the audit shall be included in and become part of the annual report of the Interstate Commission.

ARTICLE IX

THE STATE COUNCIL.—Each member shall create a State Council for Interstate Juvenile Supervision. While each state may determine the membership of its own state council, its membership must include at least one representative from the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government; at least one representative of victims groups; a parent of a youth who is not currently in the juvenile justice system; and the compact administrator, deputy compact administrator, or designee. Each compacting state retains the right to determine the qualifications of the compact administrator or deputy compact administrator. Each state council may advise and exercise oversight and advocacy concerning that state’s participation in the activities of the Interstate Commission and other duties as may be determined by that state, including, but not limited to, development of policy concerning operations and procedures of the compact within that state.

ARTICLE X

COMPACTING STATES, EFFECTIVE DATE, AND AMENDMENT.—

(1) Any state, including the District of Columbia (or its designee), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands, as defined in Article II of this compact, is eligible to become a compacting state.

(2) The compact shall become effective and binding upon legislative enactment of the compact into law by no less than 35 of the states. The initial effective date shall be the later of July 1, 2005, or upon enactment into law by the 35th jurisdiction. Thereafter, it shall become effective and binding as to any other compacting state upon enactment of the compact into law by that state. The governors of nonmember states or their designees shall be invited to participate in the activities of the Interstate Commission on a nonvoting basis prior to adoption of the compact by all states and territories of the United States.

(3) The Interstate Commission may propose amendments to the compact for enactment by the compacting states. No amendment shall become effective and binding upon the Interstate Commission and the compacting states unless and until it is enacted into law by unanimous consent of the compacting states.

ARTICLE XI

WITHDRAWAL, DEFAULT, TERMINATION, AND JUDICIAL ENFORCEMENT.—

Section A. Withdrawal.—

(1) Once effective, the compact shall continue in force and remain binding upon each and every compacting state; provided that a compacting state may withdraw from the compact by specifically repealing the statute that enacted the compact into law.

(2) The effective date of withdrawal is the effective date of the repeal.

(3) The withdrawing state shall immediately notify the chairperson of the Interstate Commission in writing upon the introduction of legislation repealing this compact in the withdrawing state. The Interstate Commission shall notify the other compacting states of the withdrawing state’s intent to withdraw within 60 days after its receipt thereof.

(4) The withdrawing state is responsible for all assessments, obligations, and liabilities incurred through the effective date of withdrawal, including any obligations the performance of which extends beyond the effective date of withdrawal.

(5) Reinstatement following withdrawal of any compacting state shall occur upon the withdrawing state’s reenacting the compact or upon such later date as determined by the Interstate Commission.

Section B. Technical assistance, fines, suspension, termination, and default.—

(1) If the Interstate Commission determines that any compacting state has at any time defaulted in the performance of any of its obligations or responsibilities under this compact, or the bylaws or duly adopted rules, the Interstate Commission may impose any or all of the following penalties:

(a) Remedial training and technical assistance as directed by the Interstate Commission;

(b) Alternative dispute resolution;

(c) Fines, fees, and costs in such amounts as are deemed to be reasonable as fixed by the Interstate Commission; or

(d) Suspension or termination of membership in the compact, which shall be imposed only after all other reasonable means of securing compliance under the bylaws and rules have been exhausted and the Interstate Commission has therefore determined that the offending state is in default. Immediate notice of suspension shall be given by the Interstate Commission to the Governor, the Chief Justice or the Chief Judicial Officer of the state, the majority and the minority leaders of the defaulting state’s legislature, and the state council. The grounds for default include, but are not limited to, failure of a compacting state to perform such obligations or responsibilities imposed upon it by this compact, the bylaws, or duly adopted rules and any other ground designated in commission bylaws and rules. The Interstate Commission shall immediately notify the defaulting state in writing of the penalty imposed by the Interstate Commission and of the default pending a cure of the default. The commission shall stipulate the conditions and the time period within which the defaulting state must cure its default. If the defaulting state fails to cure the default within the period specified by the commission, the defaulting state shall be terminated from the compact upon an affirmative vote of a majority of the compacting states and all rights, privileges, and benefits conferred by this compact shall be terminated from the effective date of termination.

(2) Within 60 days after the effective date of termination of a defaulting state, the Interstate Commission shall notify the Governor, the Chief Justice or Chief Judicial Officer, the majority and minority leaders of the defaulting state’s legislature, and the state council of such termination.

(3) The defaulting state is responsible for all assessments, obligations, and liabilities incurred through the effective date of termination, including any obligations the performance of which extends beyond the effective date of termination.

(4) The Interstate Commission shall not bear any costs relating to the defaulting state unless otherwise mutually agreed upon in writing between the Interstate Commission and the defaulting state.

(5) Reinstatement following termination of any compacting state requires both a reenactment of the compact by the defaulting state and the approval of the Interstate Commission pursuant to the rules.

Section C. Judicial enforcement.—The Interstate Commission may, by majority vote of the members, initiate legal action in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia or, at the discretion of the Interstate Commission, in the federal district where the Interstate Commission has its offices, to enforce compliance with the provisions of the compact and its duly adopted rules and bylaws against any compacting state in default. In the event judicial enforcement is necessary, the prevailing party shall be awarded all costs of such litigation, including reasonable attorney’s fees.

Section D. Dissolution of compact.—

(1) The compact dissolves effective upon the date of the withdrawal or default of the compacting state which reduces membership in the compact to one compacting state.

(2) Upon the dissolution of the compact, the compact becomes null and void and shall be of no further force or effect, the business and affairs of the Interstate Commission shall be concluded, and any surplus funds shall be distributed in accordance with the bylaws.

ARTICLE XII

SEVERABILITY AND CONSTRUCTION.—

(1) The provisions of this compact are severable, and if any phrase, clause, sentence, or provision is deemed unenforceable, the remaining provisions of the compact shall be enforceable.

(2) The provisions of this compact shall be liberally construed to effectuate its purposes.

ARTICLE XIII

BINDING EFFECT OF COMPACT AND OTHER LAWS.—

Section A. Other laws.—

(1) Nothing herein prevents the enforcement of any other law of a compacting state which is not inconsistent with this compact.

(2) All compacting states’ laws other than state constitutions and other interstate compacts conflicting with this compact are superseded to the extent of the conflict.

Section B. Binding effect of the compact.—

(1) All lawful actions of the Interstate Commission, including all rules and bylaws adopted by the Interstate Commission, are binding upon the compacting states.

(2) All agreements between the Interstate Commission and the compacting states are binding in accordance with their terms.

(3) Upon the request of a party to a conflict over meaning or interpretation of Interstate Commission actions, and upon a majority vote of the compacting states, the Interstate Commission may issue advisory opinions regarding such meaning or interpretation.

(4) In the event any provision of this compact exceeds the constitutional limits imposed on any compacting state, the obligations, duties, powers, or jurisdiction sought to be conferred by such provision upon the Interstate Commission shall be ineffective and such obligations, duties, powers, or jurisdiction shall remain in the compacting state and shall be exercised by the agency thereof to which such obligations, duties, powers, or jurisdiction are delegated by law in effect at the time this compact becomes effective.

History.s. 2, ch. 57-298; s. 1, ch. 74-22; s. 26, ch. 78-414; s. 243, ch. 95-147; s. 81, ch. 97-238; ss. 1, 4, ch. 2005-80; s. 101, ch. 2006-120; s. 1, ch. 2011-89.
Note.Former s. 39.26; s. 39.511; s. 985.502.
985.8025 State Council for Interstate Juvenile Offender Supervision.
(1) Pursuant to Article IX of the Interstate Compact for Juveniles in s. 985.802, the State Council for Interstate Juvenile Offender Supervision is created. The purpose of the council is to oversee state participation in the activities of the Interstate Commission for Juveniles.
(2) The council shall consist of seven members and the secretary of the Department of Juvenile Justice or his or her designee, who shall serve as the chair of the council and may vote only to break a tie. The compact administrator or his or her designee and the executive director of the Department of Law Enforcement or his or her designee shall serve as members of the council. The remaining members shall be appointed by the Governor for terms of 4 years; however, the Governor may, in writing and on an individual basis for each appointee, delegate the power of appointment to the Secretary of Juvenile Justice. Of the initial appointees, one shall be appointed for a term of 1 year, one shall be appointed for a term of 2 years, one shall be appointed for a term of 3 years, and two shall be appointed for terms of 4 years each.
(3) Appointees shall be selected from individuals with personal or professional experience in the juvenile justice system and may include a victim’s advocate, employees of the Department of Children and Families, employees of the Department of Law Enforcement who work with missing and exploited children, and a parent who, at the time of appointment, does not have a child involved in the juvenile justice system.
(4) Council members shall serve without compensation, but they are entitled to reimbursement for per diem and travel expenses as provided in s. 112.061.
(5) The provisions of s. 24, Art. I of the State Constitution and of chapter 119 and s. 286.011 apply to proceedings and records of the council. Minutes, including a record of all votes cast, must be maintained for all meetings.
(6) If the council is abolished, its records must be appropriately stored, within 30 days after the effective date of its abolition, by the Department of Juvenile Justice or its successor agency. Any property assigned to the council must be reclaimed by the department or its successor agency. The council may not perform any activities after the effective date of its abolition.
History.ss. 2, 4, ch. 2005-80; s. 102, ch. 2006-120; s. 2, ch. 2011-89; s. 361, ch. 2014-19.
Note.Former s. 985.5025.